Date in History


1-8 Jan – French forces under the Duke of Guise conquered the fortress at Calais, the last English territory in France (1558).

1 Jan – German scientist William Rontgen announced his discovery of x-rays (1896).

1 Jan – All cigarette packages sold in the US were required to include the US Surgeon General’s warning “Caution: Cigarette smoking may be hazardous to your health (1966)

1 Jan – The first law requiring fluoridation of public water supplies became active in Connecticut (1967).

1 Jan – The Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Health Care Organizations (JCAHO) enacted a policy to remove accreditation from all hospitals allowing indoor smoking (1992).

1 Jan – Iowa became the first state to ban mercury (thimerosal) in all vaccines used in children (2006).

2 Jan – Delaware and Wyandot Indians surprised and massacred 11 eleven men, one woman and two children in the Big Bottom Massacre in southeastern Ohio (1791).

3 Jan – Pope Leo X excommunicated Martin Luther, the Protestant Reformer, in his papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem, after Luther refused to recant his writings as required by the 1520 papal bull Exsurge Domine (1521).

3 Jan – In the Battle of Princeton, American forces under Washington defeated British troops under Cornwallis, compelling the British to abandon most of New Jersey (1777).

4 Jan – Danish invaders formed a redoubt at Reading, Berkshire, and held off a West Saxon counterattack in the Battle of Reading (871).

4 Jan – Dr. William West Grant performed what was probably the first successful appendectomy, on Mary Gartside (1885).

5 Jan – British land and naval forces led by American Revolutionary hero and later turncoat Benedict Arnold burned Richmond, Virginia (1781).

6 Jan – Epiphany, the traditional date of the arrival of the Magi (Three Kings) to the Holy Family in Bethlehem. The traditional names of the Three Magi are Balthasar, Melchior, and Gaspar (4-6 BC).

6 Jan – British General William Elphinstone withdrew his British soldiers and civilians from their camp in Kabul, Afghanistan, resulting in total destruction of his forces (1842).

6 Jan – Diphenylhydantoin (phenytoin) was approved as an anti-epileptic drug by the US Food and Drug Adminstration (FDA) (1953).

7 Jan – The first commercial bank in the United States, the Bank of North America, opened for business (1782).

7 Jan – The first trans-Atlantic telephone service, from New York to London, was established (1927).

7 Jan – Vietnamese armies entered the Cambodian capital of Phnom Penh, forcing the Khmer Rouge to flee into exile and ending active fighting in the Cambodian Vietnamese War (1979).

7 Jan – Japan launched the Sakigake, the first non-US and non-Soviet deep space probe and interplanetary spacecraft (1985).

8 Jan – President George Washington delivered the first State of the Union Address before a joint session of Congress in New York City (1790).

8 Jan – Andrew Jackson’s 4700 soldiers and irregulars destroyed an attacking British force of over 11,000, at the Chalmette Plantation in the Battle of New Orleans, inflicting 2500 casualties and ending the Louisiana Campaign (1815).

8 Jan – The only time in US history that the US national debt was $0.00 (1835).

8 Jan – American missionaries Jim Eliot, Nate Saint, Ed McCully, Peter Fleming, and Roger Youderian were killed by Huaorani (then known as “Auca”) Indians, at a sandbar on the Curary River (1956).

9-11 Jan – In the First Battle of Inonu during the Greco-Turkish War, Greek and Turkish soldiers fought to a draw near Eskiehir, Turkey (1921).

10 Jan – Julius Caesar moved Legio XIII Gemina across the Rubicon River into Italy, thus beginning civil war against Pompey and the Roman Senate (49).

10 Jan – Drs. Hubert Loring and C.E. Schwerdt at Stanford University isolated the polio virus (1947).

11 Jan – Elizabeth Blackwell became the first woman to earn a US medical degree (1849).

11 Jan – The Japanese 25th Army supported by air units captured Kuala Lumpur in British Malaya, opening the way for the capture of Singapore in February (1942).

12 Jan – US troops first saw combat in Vietnam in Operation Chopper, in which American helicopters transported over 1,000 South Vietnamese troops to attack a stronghold of the National Liberation Front 10 miles west of Saigon (1962).

13 Jan – In the only battle in Georgia in the War of 1812, 1500 British infantry and marines captured Fort Peter, later destroying the fort (1815).

14 Jan – The Maratha Empire had weakened it Mughal foes and moved against Afghanistan. In the Third Battle of Panipat, Afghans crushed the Marathan forces in what was the largest battle fought in the 18th century (1761).

14 Jan – Swiss guide Matthias Zurbriggen on a British expedition under Edward Fitzgerald made the first recorded ascent of Aconcagua, at 22,837 ft the highest mountain in South America, the Western Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere (1897).

15 Jan – The Pemberton Medicine Company, known today as the Coca Cola Company, was incorporated in Atlanta, Georgia (1889).

15 Jan – Biafrian rebels lay down their arms after an unsuccessful 30 month campaign to gain independence from Nigeria in the Nigerian Civil War (1970).

16 Jan – The Pope appointed the Medici family as the official bankers of the Papacy (1412).

16 Jan – Ivan the Terrible crowned himself the first Czar of Russia (1547).

16 Jan – The English Parliament outlawed Roman Catholicism (1581).

16 Jan – The first edition of El Ingenioso Hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha (Book One of Don Quixote) by Miguel de Cervantes was published in Madrid, Spain (1605).

16 Jan – Virginia enacted the Statute for Religious Freedom authored by Thomas Jefferson (1786).

16 Jan – Russian forces stormed the Ottoman fortress near Plovdiv, Bulgaria in the Battle of Philippopolis, capturing the citadel and driving Ottomans back to Constantinople (1878)

16 Jan – The United States prohibited alcohol use throughout the nation in the 18th amendment to the Constitution (1919).

16 Jan – The Space Shuttle Columbia takes off for mission STS-107 which would be its final one. Columbia disintegrated 16 days later on re-entry (2003).

17 Jan – Popeye the Sailor, a comic character created by Elzie Segar, first appeared in the Thimble Theater comic strip (1929).

17 Jan – Eleven thieves stole more than $2,700,000 from the offices of the Brink’s armored car company in Boston in the Great Brink’s Robbery (1950).

17 Jan – Operation Desert Storm began, in which US and Allied forces smashed Iraq armies in response to their invasion of Kuwait in August 1990 (1991).

18 Jan – American pilot Eugene B. Ely landed his Curtiss Pusher on the deck of the armored cruiser USS Pennsylania in San Francisco Bay, the first time that an aircraft landed on a ship (1911).

18 Jan – A Greek fleet including three battleships, one armored cruiser and seven destroyers defeated an Ottoman task force composed of three battleships, one cruiser and five destroyers in the Battle of Lemnos, assuring Greek supremacy over the Aegean Sea (1913).

19 Jan – Rebels seeking the independence of Chile and Argentina crossed the Andes to coverage on Lima, Peru and defeat Spanish royalist forces there (1817).

20 Jan – In the Battle of Rach Gam Xoai Mut, one of the greatest victories in Vietnamese history, Tay Son rebel forces defeated loyalist forces backed by Siamese troops under Nguyen Anh (Gia Long) (1785).

21 Jan – The Anabaptist movement began in Switzerland when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and several others baptized each other in Zurich. This state-independent “believer’s baptism” was inconsistent with the state sponsored and Catholic infant baptism, breaking a 1,000 year old tradition (1525).

21 Jan – First medical pamphlet in America, covering smallpox, was published (1677).

21 Jan – The National Assembly of Quebec adopted and flew the Quebec flag for the first time, inaugurating the Quebec Flag Day (1948).

21 Jan – The first nuclear powered submarine, the USS Nautilus (SSN 571), was launched at Groton, CT (1954).

21 Jan to 9 Jul – The Battle of Khe Sanh, in which approximately 26,000 US soldiers and Marines defended the Khe Sanh combat base against about 34,000 North Vietnamese troops. Both sides claimed victory. The NVA sustained far heavier losses but the US abandoned the base in late July, giving the NVA control over the territory (1968).

21 Jan – The US Coast Guard intercepted a ship with over 9500 lbs of cocaine on board, one of the largest drug busts in history (1999).

22 Jan – In the Battle of Isandlwana, a Zulu army of about 20,000 annihilated a British and native force of about 1500 under LTG Lord Chelmsford at the beginning of the Zulu War (1879).

22 Jan – Simultaneous with the Isandlwana disaster, 150 British and native troops in the mission station at Rorke’s Drift held off 4000 Zulu warriors, killing 10% of them, in the Battle of Rorke’s Drift. 11 Victoria Crosses, Britain’s highest honor, were awarded for this battle (1879).

23 Jan – Australian forces were defeated by the Japanese in the Battle of Rabaul, opening up New Guinea to Japanese domination and providing Japan its greatest base in the southwest Pacific (1942).

24 Jan – In England, Robert Baden-Powell organized the first Boy Scout troop (1908).

24 Jan to 1 Mar – Australian and New Zealand members of the 1st Task Force defeated Viet Cong and North Vietnamese troops in Operation Coburg, hindering the Tet Offensive that would start on 30 Jan (1968).

25 Jan – In the Battle of the Zab, Abbasid rebel overthrew the Umayyad Caliphate which had ruled most of the Middle East since the middle of the seventh century and setting up their own Caliphate which lasted almost 800 years (750).

26 Jan – Mahdist Sudanese forces captured the city of Khartoum, beheading its British commander Charles “Chinese” Gordon and slaughtering 4,000 inhabitants after a 10 month siege (1885).

27-31 Jan – A large army trying to reassert the power of the Tokugawa shogunate was beaten by a smaller army supporting the Japanese emperor in the Battle of Toba-Fushimi, causing the permanent sunset of shogun power and establishing imperial Japanese governance for almost 80 years (1868).

28 Jan – British East India Company soldiers held off a Sikh invasion force and then counterattacked, inflicting heavy losses, in the Battle of Aliwal in the first Anglo-Sikh War (1846).

29 Jan to 10 Feb – Mongols under Hulagu Khan besiege Baghdad, defeating the Arab army, capturing the city, killing Caliph Al-Musta’sim (1213-1258), and butchering 200,000 to 800,000 inhabitants (1258).

29 Jan – Whig Senator Henry Clay proposed the Compromise of 1850, which admitted California as a free state, left Utah and New Mexico to popular sovereignty, limited Texas’ territorial claims, abolished the slave trade in Washington DC, and strengthened the Fugitive Slave Act, was introduced to Congress and passed in September (1850).

29 Jan – Ty Cobb, Babe Ruth, Walter Johnson, Christy Mathewson, and Honus Wagner are announced as the first inductees into the Baseball Hall of Fame (1936).

29 Jan – The first inductees into the Pro Football (American) Hall of Fame were announced, including Sammy Baugh, Bert Bell, Joseph Carr, Dutch Clark, Red Grange, George Halas, Mel Hein, Pete Henry, Cal Hubbard, Dot Hutson, Curly Lambeau, Tim Mara, George Preston Marshall, John “Blood” McNally, Bronko Nagurski, Ernie Nevers, and Jim Thorpe  (1963).

30 Jan to 23 Sep – North Vietnamese Army and Viet Cong forces simultaneously attacked dozens of cities in South Vietnam, losing more troops than their American and South Vietnamese enemies but scoring a huge psychological victory that would lead to the American withdrawal five years later (1968).

31 Jan – The Germans made large scale use of poison gas (bromide) for the first time against Russian soldiers in the Battle of Bolimov. The attempt was a failure, with the wind shifting to blow the gas back against the Germans and the frigid weather freezing the gas (1915).

1 Feb – After the Swedish defeat by the Russians at the Battle of Poltava (1709), King Charles XII and a small contingent of soldiers withdrew to Bendery in Ottoman-controlled Moldova. Growing tired of their northern guests, the Ottomans attacked the Swedish camp with over 10,000 men and 24 cannon, suffering disproportionate losses but capturing the camp (1713).

2 Feb – Making a Living, Charlie Chaplin’s first movie, premiered (1914).

2 Feb – To combat a deadly epidemic, dog sleds from Anchorage reach Nome with diphtheria serum, saving lives and inspiring the Iditarod Race (1925).

2 Feb – 91,000 surviving German, Rumanian and other Axis troops under Friedrich Paulus surrendered to a vast Soviet army under Georgy Zhukov, thus ending the Battle of Stalingrad and marking the turning point in the European War (1943).

3 Feb – 18 ships of the Portugese fleet defeated 12 ships and 80 smaller boats of a combined Ottoman, Venetian, Mameluke and Indian fleet at the Battle of Diu, ensuring Portuguese and blocking Ottoman attempts at supremacy in the Indian Ocean (1509).

3 Feb – The world’s first baby conceived by embryo transplant was born in Long Beach, CA (1984).

4 Feb to 13 May – British and Indian forces under Sir William Slim launched the final offensive in the Burma campaign, culminating in the Battle of Pakokku, the Irrawaddy River operations, and the ultimate destruction of the Japanese Burma force (1945).

4 Feb – Dr. M. S. Roberts performed the longest surgery in medical history, lasting four days. He drained a nine-foot circumference ovarian cyst of Mrs. Gertrude Levandowski, removing 200 lbs of fluid at 120 drops per minute and then excising the remainder of the 100 lb cyst (1951).

5 Feb to 24 Aug – British, Spanish and Portuguese forces besieged and conquered French-held Cadiz, freeing Spain from Napoleon’s grip and hastening the end of his empire (1810-1812)

6 Feb – Confederate Fort Henry on the Tennessee River is captured by Union forces under General Ulysses S. Grant (1862).

7-8 Feb – In the Battle of Eylau, French forces under Napoleon fought stronger Russian and Prussian forces, with both sides suffering heavy losses but to little practical effect (1807).

8-15 Feb – The major British base at Singapore, known as the Gibraltar of the East, was attacked and captured by smaller Japanese forces in what Churchill termed the largest capitulation in British military history (1942).

8 Feb – The NASDAQ, originally the National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations, started business (1971).

8 Feb – The last crew of the American space station Skylab returned to earth (1974).

9 Feb – In the only instance of one submerged submarine sinking another submerged submarine in naval history, HMS Venturer sunk U-864 off Bergen in the North Sea (1945).

10-13 Feb – A Soviet force of over 30,000 trying to relieve the Axis siege of Leningrad suffered a tactical defeat against a combined German and Spanish force in the Battle of Krasny Bor (1943).

11 Feb – The first session of the United States Senate was opened to the public (1794).

11-16 Feb – Confederate Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River is captured by Union forces under General Ulysses S. Grant (1862).

11 Feb – James “Buster” Douglas, a 42 to 1 underdog, knocked out Mike Tyson in the World Heavyweight Boxing Championship in Tokyo (1990). It was considered the biggest upset in boxing history.

12 Feb – Napoleon defeated Prussians and Russians under Marshall Von Blucher in the Battle of Chateau-Thierry in an unsuccessful attempt to stop the Allied drive into France which later deposed him (1814).

12 Feb – George Gershwin’s Rhapsody in Blue premiered in Aeolian Hall, New York (1924).

13 – 15 Feb – Over 1000 bombers of the Royal Air Force (RAF) and United States Army Air Force (USAAF) dropped almost 4,000 tons of high explosive and incendiary bombs on Dresden, Germany, causing a fire storm that consumed 1600 acres of the city center and killed almost 25,000 people, mostly civilians (1945).

14 Feb – At the Battle of Kettle Creek, rebel militia under Andrew Pickens surprised and defeated a larger force of Tory militia under John Boyd enroute to British controlled Augusta (1779).

14 Feb – British explorer James Cook was killed by Hawaiian natives at Kealakekua Bay on the Big Island of Hawaii (1779).

15 Feb – The battleship USS Maine exploded and sank mysteriously in the harbor of Havana, Cuba, triggering the Spanish American War (1898).

16 Feb – Lieutenant Stephen Decatur led a small force of Marines to recapture and burn the frigate USS Philadelphia, captured by Barbary forces on 31 Oct 1803, in the harbor at Tripoli (1804).

17 Feb – The CSS Hunley became the first submarine to attack and sink an enemy warship when it destroyed the screw sloop USS Housatonic. Shortly thereafter the Hunley, probably damaged in the blast, also sank (1864).

18 Feb – Samuel Clemens, AKA Mark Twain, published The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn in the United States (1885).

18 Feb – In the Battle of Paardeberg during the Second Boer War, British forces captured a Boer convoy, albeit at heavy cost, thus seriously weakening the Boer war effort (1900).

18 Feb – The first official flight with air mail occurred from Allahabad, United Provinces, British India, when Henri Pequet, a 23-year-old pilot, delivered 6,500 letters to Naini, about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) away (1911).

18 Feb – Gordon Haller won the first Ironman Triathlon competition, which took place on the island of Oahu (1978).

18 Feb – Seven-time NASCAR Sprint Cup Series champion Dale Earnhardt died in an accident during the Daytona 500 (2001).

19 Feb – Thomas Edison patented the phonograph, US Patent 200,521 (1878).

19-24 Feb – German and Italian forces under the Desert Fox, Field Marshal Erwin Rommel, defeated a larger American, British and Free French troops in the Battle of Kassarine Pass, the first major engagement of US troops in the European theater (1943).

20 Feb to 10 Mar – Five Japanese armies numbering 281,000 soldiers rout three Russian armies numbering 343,000 troops in the Battle of Mukden (1905), the biggest land battle since Leipzig (1813) and the most decisive of the Russo-Japanese War.

21 Feb – Attempting to defeat an Ottoman invasion of Ethiopia and smarting from their defeat at the Battle of Wolfa (28 Aug 1542), a combined Ethiopian and Portuguese force smashed a combined Somali-Ottoman Army in the Battle of Wayna Daga (1543).

21 Feb – The first steam locomotive self-propelled in Wales at the Pen-y-Darren Ironworks (1804).

21 Feb – Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels published The Communist Manifesto (1848).

21 Feb – NASCAR was incorporated (1948).

21 Feb – Pilot Steve Fossett landed in Leader, Saskatchewan, Canada becoming the first person to make a solo flight across the Pacific Ocean in a balloon (1995).

22-24 Feb – During the Last Invasion of England, soldiers of the French Republic were defeated in the Battle of Fishguard, Wales (1797).

22-23 Feb – About 5000 US troops under Zachary Taylor stopped over 15,000 Mexican soldiers under Santa Anna in the Battle of Buena Vista, thus handing Taylor his greatest victory and probably the US Presidency in  1849 (1847).

23 Feb – The estimated date that Johannes Gutenberg printed the first book from movable type, and his first book, the Bible (1455).

23 Feb – The first US mill converting cotton to cloth was founded in Waltham, MA, inaugurating the expansion of the US textile industry (1813).

23 Feb – A plot by the “Spencean Philanthropists”, including trade unionists and members of the London Irish community, to assassinate every British cabinet member, known as the Cato Street conspiracy, was uncovered (1820).

23 Feb – The first US pharmacy college, the Philadelphia College of Apothecaries, was founded (1821).

23 Feb to 6 Mar – Almost 2000 soldiers under the Mexican general Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna besieged and destroyed the Texan mission station at the Alamo, killing every one of the 189 defenders, including American frontiersman Davy Crockett (1836).

23 Feb – Japanese submarine I-17 shelled Ellwood, California, marking the first time that the US homeland was attacked by Axis forces in World War 2 and leading to the internment of Japanese Americans (1942).

24 Feb – During the Italian War (1521-1526), forces of Charles V from the Holy Roman Empire and Spain defeated French troops and captured their commander, King Francis I, at the Battle of Pavia (1525).

24 Feb – Armies of the Afsharid Empire of Persia crushed forces of the Mughal Empire north of Delhi, Indian, in the Battle of Karnal (1739).

24 Feb – Tyrone Mitchell attacked the 49th Street Elementary School in Los Angeles, CA, killing two children and injuring twelve more before turning the shotgun on himself (1984).

25 Feb – In the single greatest loss of life for the US in the Gulf War, an Iraqi scud missile hit a US barracks in Dharan, Saudi Arabia, killing 28 soldiers (1991).

26 Feb – In the Battle of Benevento, French troops bested Sicilian and German mercenaries, securing Sicily for Charles of Anjou (1266).

26 Feb – President Woodrow Wilson signed the Grand Canyon National Park Act, transforming the Grand Canyon National Monument proclaimed by Theodore Roosevelt into the 15th US National Park (1919).

26 Feb – President Calvin Coolidge signed an Executive Order establishing the Grand Teton National Park, a 96,000 acre wilderness area in northwestern Wyoming (1929).

27 Feb – US patent awarded to the drug and dye firm Bayer for the new pain killer, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), popularly known as aspirin (1900).

27 Feb – A fleet of the Imperial Japanese Navy under Takeo Takagi devastated a combined American, British, Dutch and Australian (ABDA) task force, sinking two Dutch light cruisers, in the Battle of the Java Sea (1942).

28 Feb – In the Battle of Sunda Strait, a Japanese task force of 2 light carriers, 5 cruisers and 12 destroyers encountered and sunk an American heavy cruiser (USS Houston), an Australian light cruiser (HMAS Perth) and a Dutch destroyer (HNLMS Evertsen) (1942).

28 Feb 1998 to 11 Jun 1999 – NATO forces and Kosovar rebels pushed Serbian forces out of the breakaway province of Kosovo during the Kosovo War (1998-1999).

28 Feb – Pope Benedict XVI resigned from the papacy, the first Pope to do so since Gregory XII in 1415 (2013). He was the first one to resign without outside pressure to do so since Celestine V in 1294.

29 Feb – During Queen Anne’s War, Native American warriors supported by the French troops raided a colonial settlement in Deerfield, Massachusetts. 56 villagers died and over 100 were captured (1704).

1 Mar – Rebecca Lee became the first black women to earn a US medical degree (1864).

1-20 Mar – The Uppsala Synod adopted the Apostles’ Creed, the Nicene Creed, the Athanasian Creed, and the Augsburg Confession (1530) as official doctrine for the Lutheran Church of Sweden (1593). Catholicism, Calvinism and Zwingliism were officially banned.

1-18 Mar – US and Coalition forces attacked Taliban and allied troops in Operation Anaconda in Afghanistan, inflicting heavy casualties (2002).

2 Mar – French and Chinese troops clashed at the Battle of Hoa Moc during the Sino-French War, with the French relieving their besieged forces near near Tuyen Quang in northern Vietnam (1885).

2-4 Mar – In the Battle of the Bismarck Sea, US and Australian fighters, bombers and torpedo boats attacked and destroyed a Japanese convoy bringing reinforcements to New Guinea (1943).

3-4 Mar – Hoping to seize gunpowder and other British military supplies, colonial marines disembarked from a fleet and captured Fort Montagu but failed to advance into the town at Nassau, allowing the British to transfer the powder stores to ships of the Royal Navy (1776).

4 Mar – The Forth Bridge crossing the Firth of Forth, the longest (until 1917) cantilever bridge in the world (spanning 8,296 feet) opened in Scotland (1890).

4 Mar – In Operation Claymore, a British commando raid on the Lofoten Islands off of the northern coast of Norway destroyed over 800,000 gallons of oil and glycerine stores and many factories vital to the German war effort (1941).

5 Mar – During the rebellion of the Moros against the US in the Philippines, soldiers under General Leonard Wood attacked and destroyed a Moro position on the volcanic crater of Bud Dajo, killing 800-900 Moro warriors and some of their families, including women and children (1906).

6 Mar – Norman Rockwell published Freedom from Want in the Saturday Evening Post, continuing the Four Freedoms series after President Franklin Roosevelt’s famous 1941 address (1943).

6 Mar – Soldiers of the 1st US Army captured the German city of Cologne (1945).

6 Mar – An SR-71 Blackbird piloted by Lt Col Joseph Vida and Lt Col Ed Yielding set an North American transcontinental speed record, flying from Los Angeles to Washington DC in 64 minutes at an average of 2144 miles per hour (1990).

7 Mar – 17 year old heiress Ellen Turner was abducted by 30 year old Edward Gibbon Wakefield and then forced to marry him in the Shrigley Abduction, which ended in the annulment of the marriage and prison for Wakefield (1826).

7 Mar to 4 Apr – US and UN forces attacked and defeated more numerous North Korean and Chinese troops in Operation Ripper, forcing the communists back to the 38th parallel and recapturing Seoul for the final time during the war (1951).

8 Mar – The New York Stock Exchange was founded (1817).

8-9 Mar – Union Monitor and Confederate Merrimac fight to a draw in the first clash of ironclad warships in history, the Battle of Hampton Roads (1862).

8 Mar – The Philips Company first publicly demonstrated the Compact Disc (1979).

9-10 Mar – Mahdist Sudanese and Ethiopian forces fought to a bloody draw, but the Ethiopian Emperior Yohannes IV was killed in the Battle of Gallabat (1889).

9-10 Mar – During Operation Meetinghouse, the most devastating aerial bombing raid in history, American B29s dropped incendiary bombs creating firestorms that killed an estimated 100,000 Japanese and destroyed nearly 290,000 buildings. (1945).

10 Mar – A Roman fleet defeated a larger Carthaginian one off the western end of Sicily in the Battle of the Aegates Islands, ending the First Punic War (241 BC).

10 Mar – The American John Stone patented the pile driver (1792).

10 Mar – The US Congress ratifies the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, ending the Mexican American War (1848).

10 Mar – The American inventor Alexander Graham Bell made the first telephone call, saying “Mr. Watson, come here. I want to see you (1876).”

11 Mar – Sensing that Allied positions are Bataan were soon to fall, General Douglas MacArthur fled the island fortress of Corregidor (1942).

12 Mar – The newly inaugurated President Franklin Roosevelt addressed the nation for the first time in what became his first of thirty “Fireside Chats” (1933).

12 Mar – After a coup d etat by Austrian Nazis the day before, German troops moved into Austria in the Anchluss, bringing it irrevocably into the Third Reich (1938).

13 Mar – Islamic forces from Medina led by Muhammad defeated troops of the Quraish of Mecca at the Battle of Badr in Arabia. Muslim success eventually led to the conquest of Mecca, the uniting of many previously warring tribes, and the advance of Islam in the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and Europe (624).

14 Mar – After the German victory in the Battle of Coronel and defeat at the Battle of the Falkland Islands, the German cruiser SMS Dresden was scuttled by her own crew after being trapped at Robinson Crusoe Island by the Royal Navy (1915).

15 Mar – In the Battle of Guilford Court House, British regulars and Tory militia defeated American regulars and rebel militia. However the cost to the British was so high that their recruiting efforts for Tories in North Carolina collapsed (1781).

16 Mar – Gemini VIII completed the first successful docking of two spacecraft while in orbit (1966).

16 Mar – In the infamous My Lai massacre in Vietnam, US soldiers killed a 347 Vietnamese military and civilians, including women and children (1968).

17 Mar – Saint Patrick, the Patron Saint of Ireland, died in Ireland (461). St. Patrick’s Day is celebrated around the world celebrating his life and work, introducing Christianity to Ireland.

17 Mar – President Franklin Delano Roosevelt opened the National Gallery of Art (1937).

17 Mar – Christian Castilian and Murcian forces routed Muslim Granadan troops in the Battle of Los Alporchones, a pivotal victory in the reconquest of Spain (1452).

18 Mar – Eighteen British battleships, mostly obsolete, and a supporting cast of cruisers, minesweepers and other vessels, tried and failed to force passage of the Dardanelles Strait in Turkey, thus setting the stage for the colossal failure of the Gallipoli Campaign (1915).

19 Mar – CSS Georgiana was destroyed on her maiden voyage while carrying munitions, medicine and merchandise (1863).

19-21 Mar – Confederate forces under Joe Johnston were defeated by Union troops under William Sherman in the Battle of Bentonville, North Carolina (1865).

19 Mar – Pool player Willie Mosconi pocketed 526 consecutive balls in a pool demonstration in Springfield, Ohio, setting a world record (1954).

20 Mar – General Douglas MacArthur promised “I shall return” to the Philippines after fleeing Bataan in the face of overwhelming Japanese strength (1942).

21 Mar to 5 Apr – The Spring Offensive, Germanys’ last chance to break the Allied lines, drive the British Expeditionary Force into the sea and end World War 1, known as Operation Michael, failed (1918).

22 Mar – Indians of the Powhatan Confederacy killed 347 English settlers, 25% of the population, in the Jamestown massacre (1622).

23 – 29 Mar – US and British forces defeated Iraqi units in the Battle of Nasiriyah (2003).

24-25 Mar – 76 British prisoners of war escaped Stalag Luft III in “The Great Escape”, but 73 of these were recaptured and 50 of those recaptured were executed (1944).

25 Mar – Richard I Lionheart was wounded by a crossbow bolt while besieging a castle in France, leading to his death on April 6 (1199).

25 Mar – Dutch mathematician, scientist and astronomer Christiaan Huygens discovered Saturn’s largest moon, Titan (1655).

25 Mar – The Oystermouth Railway, now called the Swansea and Mumbles Railway, became the first passenger carrying railway in the world (1807).

25 Mar – The first successful tornado forecast predicted that a tornado would strike Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma (1948).

25 Mar – Member states West Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg formed the European Economic Community (1957).

26 Mar – Ottoman forces repelled British attackers in the first Battle of Gaza in Southern Palestine (1917).

26 Mar – In Auburn, Massachusetts, Robert Goddard launched the first successful liquid fueled rocket (1926).

27 Mar to 7 Apr – Forces of the Chinese National Revolutionary Army and the Soviet Volunteer Group defeated the 2nd Army of the Imperial Japanese Army, thus breaking the myth of Japanese invincibility and eventual Allied victory (1938).

28 Mar – British frigates HMS Phoebe and Cherub captured American frigates USS Essex and Essex Junior in the Battle of Valparaiso off the coast of Chile (1814).

29 Mar to 12 May – British soldiers besiege and ultimately conquer the city of Charleston, South Carolina, in the greatest American defeat of the Revolutionary War (1780).

29 Mar – 2000 Imperial British forces in camp at Kambula repelled 20,000 attacking Zulu warriors in the Anglo-Zulu War (1879).

30 Mar – American Surgeon Crawford Long used ether for surgical anesthesia for the first time (1842).

30 Mar – Over 370 American heavy bombers flattened the city of Sofia, Bulgaria (1944).

31 Mar – Bernard of Clairvaux preached his sermon at Vezelay, calling Christians to arms in the Second Crusade (1146).

31 Mar – Japanese invade and conquer Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean from the United Kingdom (1942).

31 Mar – Wrestlemania, the largest wrestling event in the World Wrestling Federation, began in Madison Square Garden (1985).

1 Apr – The Union V Corps under Philip Sheridan routed Confederates under George Pickett at the Battle of Five Forks, prompting Lee to abandon Richmond and Petersburg and eventually leading to his capture and surrender at Appomattox (1865).

1 Apr – English physician Joseph Lister completed a series of 11 compound fracture repairs using antiseptic technique. When the results were published in Lancet, his techniques became standard of practice worldwide (1867).

2 Apr – Composer Ludwig van Beethoven led the premiere of his Symphony 1 in C major in Vienna (1800).

2 Apr – After the formation of the League of Armed Neutrality (Denmark-Norway, Sweden, Prussia, and Russia) to guarantee free trade with Napoleonic France, a British fleet decimated a Danish-Norwegian force in the Battle of Copenhagen (1801).

2 Apr – Francis Crick and James Watson published an article in Nature correctly describing the double helix nature of DNA (1953).

3 Apr – The first successful run of the Pony Express, from Saint Joseph, Missouri to Sacramento, California, began (1860).

3 Apr – Left abandoned by Lee’s retreating Army of Northern Virginia, Union troops captured Richmond, the capital of the Confederacy (1865).

4 Apr to 18 May – Mamluks besiege and capture Acre, the last city in Palestine held by the Crusaders (1291).

4 Apr – Professor C. Glen King of the University of Pittsburgh isolated vitamin C (1932).

5 Apr – Beginning the War of the Pacific, Chile declared war against the Allied forces of Bolivia and Peru, fighting for coastal ports in western South America (1879).

6 Apr to 29 May – Sultan Mehmed II, commanding 80,000 Ottoman soldiers, besieged Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos, commanding 8000 Byzantine troops, and conquered the Byzantine capital of Constantinople (1453).

6 Apr – During the deadliest day in the history of law enforcement in California, known as the Newhall massacre, two heavily armed men killed four California Highway Patrolmen (1970).

7 Apr – Italian land and air forces attacked and overran Albanian defenders leading to the conquest of Albania (1939).

8 Apr – Winchester Cathedral, the Anglican church that is the longest Gothic cathedral in Europe, was dedicated (1093).

8 Apr 1232 to 26 Feb 1233 – Mongols under Subutai besieged and captured the Chinese city of Kaifeng, but suffering heavy losses (1232-1233)

9 Apr – Mongol horse archers and heavy cavalry of the Golden Horde under Subutai (1175-1248) routed a multinational European force of Knights Templar, Knights Hospitalier, Teutonic Knights, Poles and Bavarians in the Battle of Legnica/Liegnitz (1241).

10 Apr – Prussians under Frederick the Great defeated equivalent Austrian forces in the Battle of Mollwitz, Silesia (1741).

11 Apr – Troops from France and the Duchy of Ferrara defeated forces from Spain and the Papal States at the Battle of Ravenna (1512).

12 Apr – Soldiers of the Fourth Crusade conquer and sack the Byzantine capital of Constantinople (1204).

12 Apr – Confederate artillery under PGT Beauregard begins shelling Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, beginning the American Civil War (1861).

12 Apr – The Soviet Comonaut Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (1934-1968) became the first human in space and the first to orbit the earth aboard Vostok 3KA-3 (1961).

12 Apr – First launch (STS-1) of the first US Space Shuttle, Columbia, from Cape Canaveral (1981). John W. Young was Mission Commander and Robert L. Crippen was the pilot.

13 Apr – Thinking that an insurrection was starting, troops of the British Indian Army killed 379 protestors and wounded 1200, primarily Sikhs, in the  Jallianwala Bagh massacre. This event is also known as the Amritsar massacre (1919).

13 Apr to 20 Jul – Over 35,000 North Vietnamese troops were repulsed by about 7,500 American and South Vietnamese troops in the Battle of An Loc (1972).

14 Apr – Bulgarian and Byzantine soldiers defeated Latins in the Battle of Adrianople, less than one year after the Latin soldiers of the Fourth Crusade captured Constantinople (1205).

15 Apr – Abraham Lincoln, the Great Emancipator and US President during the Civil War, died after being shot by John Wilkes Booth at Ford’s Theater in Washington DC the night before (1865).

15 Apr – Luftwaffe bombers began the Belfast Blitz, destroying the city of Belfast in Northern Ireland and eventually killing almost 1000 people (1941).

16-19 Apr – Over one million Soviet troops attacked and pushed back about 112,000 German defenders in the Battle of Seelow Heights, opening the way for conquest of Berlin a few days later (1945).

17 Apr – French General Henri Giraud escaped from the German POW camp at Konigstein Castle near Dresden, Germany, making his way safely to Switzerland and later rejoining the war against the Axis (1942).

18 Apr – 16 B-25 Mitchells under James Doolittle bombed Tokyo and other cities in the Japanese Home Islands (1942).

19 Apr – The Battle of Haugsnes was fought between opposing Icelandic clans, the largest and bloodiest battle in the island’s history (1246).

19 Apr – Colonial militia defeat a British column in the Battles of Lexington and Concord (1775).

19 Apr – In Springfield, MA, Charles Duryea claimed to the first American to drive a car (1892).

19 Apr – Eighteen runners ran in the first Boston Marathon, the largest and oldest marathon in the world. John J. McDermott won it in 2:55:10 (1897).

20 Apr 1775 to 17 Mar 1776 – Militia from New England and surrounding colonies besieged British regulars occupying Boston, eventually capturing the city (1775-1776).

21 Apr – After the disaster at the Alamo and the massacre at Goliad, Texan soldiers under Sam Houston routed Mexican soldiers under Santa Anna, who was captured, at the Battle of San Jacinto (1836).

22-23 Apr – 1LT Carter Harman of the 1st Air Commando Group performed the first helicopter (Sikorsky YR-4B) combat search and rescue mission in history when he rescued a pilot and three British soldiers in the China-Burma theater (1944).

23 Apr – Naval forces from the United Kingdom tried and failed to close the Belgian port at Zeebrugge, which was used as a base for German U-boats (1918).

24 Apr – By tradition, the date on which the City of Troy fell to the Greeks (1184 BC).

24 Apr – Sigmund Freud published his famous paper, Das Ich und das Es, outlining his concept of the Id, the Ego, and the Super-Ego (1923).

24 Apr – Cosmonaut Vladimir Mikhaylovich Komarov became the first person to die in space exploration after his parachute failed to open during re-entry aboard Soyuz 1 (1967).

25 Apr 1915 to 9 Jan 1916 – British and French troops invade the Gallipoli Peninsula in the Ottoman Empire, initiating a campaign that would end in disaster (1915-1916).

26 Apr – William Shakespeare, writer of the plays Romeo and Juliet, MacBeth, Hamlet, The Merchant of Venice, and many others, was baptized in Stratford-upon-Avon in England (1564).

26 Apr – Germany won its last victory of World War 2 in the Battle of Bautzen, though it had no impact on the imminent defeat of the Third Reich (1945).

27 Apr to 13 May – A force of US marines, US soldiers, and local mercenaries captured the fortress and port of Derne, held by Ottoman Tripolitanian forces, the decisive action of the Barbary War (1805).

28 Apr – In the Battle of Cerignola, which was the first major battle involving the widespread use of small firearms, Spanish troops defeated a larger French force (1503).

29 Apr – HMS Goodall K479 was torpedoed and sunk by U-286, the last ship of the Royal Navy to be sunk in the European theatre in WW2 (1945).

30 Apr to 6 May – Confederate forces under Lee and Jackson defeat Union forces under Hooker at the Battle of Chancellorsville (1863).

1 May – The Act of Union came into effect, uniting the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland into the United Kingdom, also known as Great Britain (1707).

1 May – Swedish Botanist Carl Linnaeus published Plant Taxonomy, thus birthing the field of plant taxonomy (1753).

1 May – The Wedgwood Pottery Company, one of the most famous firms in British history, was founded by Josiah Wedgwood (1759).

1 May – Mozart’s opera The Marriage of Figaro was performed for the first time, in Vienna, Austria (1786).

1 May – Moses Fleetwood Walker debuted as catcher for the Toledo Blue Stockings, the first African American to play Major League Baseball (1884).

1 May – In the Battle of Manila Bay, four US protected (armored deck) cruisers and two gunboats destroyed two Spanish protected cruisers and four unprotected ones (1898).

1 May – The director of Japanese Chisso Corporation hospital announced the outbreak of an unknown disease of the central nervous system, later known as Minamata Disease, which was caused by mercury waste in the food and water supply (1956).

1 May – Francis Gary Powers, piloting a U-2 spy plane, was shot down over the eastern Soviet Union while photographing military bases, setting off an international incident (1960).

2 May – Printer Robert Barker published the King James Bible in London (1611).

2 May – English King Charles II approved the Charter of the Hudson Bay Company, opening up exploration, trade and settlement in the region (1670).

2 May – The German capital of Berlin fell to Soviet forces, with the final German surrender occurring six days later (1945).

2 May – The first jet airliner in history, the De Haviland Comet 1, made its maiden voyage from London to Johannesburg (1952).

2 May – The drama Cat on a Hot Tin Roof earned author Tennessee Williams a Pulitzer Prize (1955).

3 May – First US medical college opened in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (1765).

3 May – The oldest institution of higher education in modern Greece, the University of Athens, was founded in Athens, Greece (1837).

3 May – Margaret Mitchell’s novel Gone with the Wind won the Pulitzer Prize for fiction (1937).

3-4 May – Japanese troops invaded the Tulagi and Gavutu Islands in the Solomon chain, precipitating the Battle of the Coral Sea (1942).

4 May – John Wycliffe declared a heretic and his writings banned posthumously by the Council of Constance. Later his remains were exhumed, burned, and cast into the River Swift (1415).

4 May – In one of the most important engagements between the House of York and the House of Lancaster in the Wars of the Roses, Edward IV of York defeated Edward Prince of Wales at the Battle of Tewkesbury (1471).

4 May – During a labor demonstration in Haymarket Square, Chicago, an unknown assailant threw dynamite at police, killing seven police officers and four civilians and injuring scores more (1886).

4 May – Chicago mobster Al Capone began serving an 11-year sentence for tax evasion (1932)

4 May – The Pulitzer Prize for fiction was awarded to Ernest Hemingway for Old Man and the Sea (1953).

4 May – Margaret Thatcher became the first woman to serve as Prime Minister of Great Britain (1979).

5 May – Having discovered a better way to weave straw with silk and thread, Mary Kies became the first woman to be awarded a US patent (1809).

5 May – The Music Hall in New York City, now known as Carnegie Hall, opened for its first public performance with Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky as its guest conductor (1891).

5 May – Mexican forces under General Ignacio Zaragoza defeated an invading French army at the Battle of Puebla, a victory commemorated annually in Cinco De Mayo (1862).

5-7 May – Union and Confederate forces fought to a bloody draw in the Battle of the Wilderness near Spotsylvania, Virginia (1984).

6-11 May – Soviet, Czech, Rumanian and Polish forces attacked remaining German, Slovak and Russian troops in southeastern Germany and Western Czechoslovakia, defeating them decisively in the Prague Offensive, which ended after the Third Reich had officially capitulated on 8 May (1945).

7 May to 18 Aug – Spanish Christian troops from Castile and Aragon under Isabella and Ferdinand besieged and captured the Muslim-held fortress of Malaga in Grenada, marking the first battle in which purpose-built ambulances were used (1487).

7 May – The American Medical Association was founded and Dr. Nathaniel Chapman was elected as its first president (1847).

7 May – The Johns Hopkins Hospital, one of the first modern medical centers in the United States, was founded under the tutelage of pathologist William Henry Welch, surgeon William Stewart Halsted, internist William Osler, and gynecologist Howard Atwood Kelly (1889).

8 May – A small force of Greek revolutionaries held off determined attacks by a much larger force of Ottoman soldiers in the Battle of Gravia, a key victory in the Greek War of Independence (1821).

8 May – Effective artillery fire helped Zachary Taylor to defeat a larger Mexican force under Mariano Arista in the Battle of Palo Alto, the first major engagement in the Mexican-American War (1846).

9 May – The Royal Houses of England and Portugal signed the Treaty of Windsor, the oldest diplomatic alliance in history which remains in effect (1386).

9 May – Fighting combined Austrian and Prussian ships, the Danish navy defeated an enemy fleet in the Battle of Heligoland. They were unable, however, to win the war (1864).

10 May – The Green Mountain Boys under Ethan Allen defeated the British forces and captured Fort Ticonderoga (1775).

10 May – Stonewall Jackson, Confederate Commander, died (1863).

11 May – The world’s oldest known printed book, the Diamond Sutra, was printed in China (868).

11-30 May – US troops invaded the Aleutian Island of Attu, killing or captured the Japanese soldiers who had held the island since 7 Jun 1942 (1943).

12-13 May – In the last battle of the Civil War, Confederate forces repulsed a Union attack in the Battle of Palmito Ranch in Texas (1865).

13 May – With 15 other slaves on board, black slave and ship’s pilot Robert Smalls stole the former US gunship CSS Planter, navigated through Confederate coastal defenses, and surrendered the ship to the Union Army at Fort Pulaski in Georgia (1862). He was later given command of the USS Planter, the first black man to command a US Navy ship.

14 May to 19 Jun – Soldiers of the First Crusade and Byzantium besieged and captured the Turkish citadel at Nicaea (1097).

14 May – The Protestant Union, a coalition of German states including Anhalt, Ansbach, Baden-Durlach, Bayreuth, Brandenburg, Hesse-Kassel, Neuburg, Nuremburg, Palatinate, Strassbourg, Ulm and Wurttenberg, was founded to guard protestants and their interests (1608).

14 May – British physician Edward Jenner administered the first vaccine (cowpox) found to be effective against smallpox (1796).

14 May – The Lewis and Clark Expedition to explore the Louisiana Territory left St Louis, MO, under Captain Meriwether Lewis and his close friend Second Lieutenant William Clark (1804).

14 May – Lina Medina, the youngest mother in history at age five years, seven months and 17 days, gave birth to Gerardo Medina by caesarean section (1939). The biological father is unknown.

15 May – German peasants under the Anabaptist Thomas Muntzer were defeated by German mercenary armies under local feudal lords in the Battle of Frankenhausen, ending the Peasant’s Revolt (1525).

16 May – Loyalists crushed revolutionaries in the Battle of Asseiceira, effectively ending the Portuguese Civil War (1834).

16 May – US President Andrew Johnson is acquitted by one vote in the US Senate, retaining the Presidency after being impeached by the US House of Representatives (1868).

17 May – The German Luftwaffe destroyed over one-third of the old city of Middelburg, prompting the surrender of Dutch forces (1940).

18 May to 11 Sep – About 7,000 Maltese, Spanish and Sicilian troops and Knights of St. John defeated more than 22,000 Turks to hold the Island of Malta (1565).

19 May – After a century of being the dominant land power in Europe, the Spanish with their famed unit the tercio were beaten by a French army in the Battle of Rocroi (1643).

20 May – The city of Magdeburg in Germany was destroyed by besieging Catholic League and Holy Roman Empire forces, who pillaged the valuables and killed 20,000 inhabitants (1631).

20 May – Charles Lindbergh in his monoplane, the Spirit of St. Louis, completed the first solo, nonstop flight across the Atlantic from New York to Paris in 33.5 hours (1927).

21-25 May – British naval and amphibious forces successfully landed on the Falkland Islands despite heavy aerial attack from the Argentine Air Force in the Battle of San Carlos of the Falklands War (1982).

22 May to 9 Jul – Port Hudson, Louisiana was besieged by and finally fell to Union land and naval forces trying to gain control of the Mississippi River (1863).

23 May – Captain William Kidd, a British privateer, was hanged as a pirate in London (1701).

23 May – Italy defected from its alliance with Germany and declared war on Austria-Hungary in World War 1 (1915).

23 May – American criminals Bonnie and Clyde were ambushed and killed by police in Bienville Parish, Louisiana (1934).

24 May – John Wesley “experienced confirmation of salvation by grace”, thus beginning the Methodist Church, in what is celebrated by Methodists as “Aldersgate Day”, named after the street in London where it occurred (1738).

24 May – The British battle cruiser HMS Hood was sunk by the German battleship Bismarck in the Battle of Denmark Strait, but the Bismarck was damaged and itself sunk on 27 May (1941).

25 May – In the Carnew massacre, 38 Irish prisoners were killed by British troops during the United Irish Rebellion (1798).

26 May to 13 Aug – Spanish and Tlaxcallān (native) forces under Hernan Cortes defeated an Aztec army, besieged and captured the capital city of Tenochtitlan and destroyed the Aztec Empire (1521).

27-28 May – 89 Japanese ships sunk 21 of 28 Russian ships in the only decisive action between modern steel battleships in naval history, the Battle of Tsushima (1905).

28 May – 130 ships, 8,000 sailors and 18,000 soldiers of the Spanish armada set sail in their ill-fated attempt to conquer England (1588).

29 May – Turkish Sultan Mehmed II conquered Constantinople, finally destroying the Byzantine Empire (1453).

29 May – New Zealander Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay, a Nepali Sherpa, made the first successful ascent of Mount Everest, at 29,029 ft the tallest mountain on earth (1953).

30 May – St. Joan’s Day – Joan of Arc (1412-1431) inspired the French forces to victory against the British in the Hundred Years War. She was burned at the stake in 1431.

30 May – 1000 British bombers attacked Cologne, Germany, in Operation Millennium (1942).

1 Jun – In the Battle of Fairfax Court House, the first land engagement of the American Civil War, Confederate and Union troops skirmished inconclusively, but Union forces soon occupied the town (1861).

1 Jun – The Heimlich maneuver for rescuing choking victims was published in the Journal Emergency Medicine (1974).

2 Jun – A French fleet of 28 ships of the line defeated a combined fleet of 27 ships from Spain and the Holland while they were at bay under repairs in the Battle of Palermo, Italy. This secured French naval supremacy in the Mediterranean (1676).

3 Jun – Poorly trained Union forces defeated poorly trained and equipped Confederate troops at the Battle of Philippi, West Virginia, launching General George McClellan to national prominence (1861).

4 Jun to 20 Sep – Imperial Russian forces attacked and defeated combined German, Austro-Hungarian, and Ottoman forces in the Battle of Brusilov. Austrian power was broken and the Germans were forced to release their stranglehold on Verdun in France, but the Russians sued for peace just one year later (1916).

5 Jun –  Having isolated British, Belgian, Dutch and French troops in the Low Countries, the Wehrmacht attacked south across the Somme River into the French mainland. French forces were destroyed, Paris fell on June 14 and France surrendered 25 June (1940).

5-10 Jun – Israeli forces launched a preemptive strike on massed Egyptian and Syrian formations, capturing the Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula, the West Bank, and the Golan Heights in the Six Day War (1967).

6 June – D-Day: Allied amphibious invasion of German-occupied France in WW2 (1944).

7 Jun – Having just conquered the city of Antioch on 2 Jun, the Crusaders were themselves besieged by relieving Turkish Muslim forces under Kerbogha until a Crusader sortie routed the Muslims on 28 June (1098).

7 Jun – Hudson Stuck, Harry Karstens, Walter Harper and Robert Tatum completed the first verifiable summit of Mount McKinley, at 20,237 feet the tallest mountain in North America (1913).

8 Jun to 26 Jul – During the French and Indian War, British troops besieged the French fortress of Louisbourg in Nova Scotia (1758).

9 Jun – Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson defeated Union troops under Erastus B Tyler in the Battle of Port Republic, forcing the Union to retreat from the Shenandoah Valley (1862).

10-11 Jun – In the Battle of Pelekanon, an Ottoman army near Nicomedia, Bithynia routed a Byzantine force, marking the last time that the Byzantines ever tried to recapture territory in Anatolia from the Turks (1329).

10 Jun – New York passed the first law effectively regulating medical practice (1760).

11 Jun – The traditional date for the fall of Troy as calculated by the Greek mathematicians Eratosthenes (1184 BC).

12 Jun – 13,000 British and French troops, including the entire British 51st Highland Infantry Division, surrendered to the 7th Panzer Division under Major General Erwin Rommel at Saint-Valery-en-Caux on the English Channel in France (1940).

12 Jun – The Son of Sam serial killer, David Berkowitz, was given six life sentences for six killings (1978).

12 Jun – In the first human powered flight across the English Channel, Bryan Allen flew the Gossamer Albatross 22 miles in 2 hours (1979).

13 Jun – The Edict of Milan, issued by Constantine the Great and co-emperor Valerius Licinius and establishing religious freedom throughout the Roman Empire, was posted for public view in Nicomedia (313).

13 Jun – The Protestant Reformer Martin Luther married Katharina von Bora, establishing a precedent for married clergy in the Lutheran Church. The Roman Catholic Church, by contrast, required that priests remain unmarried (1525).

13 Jun – Rhode Island became the first British North American colony to ban the slave trade (1774).

13 Jun – German Gotha G bombers raided London during World War I, killing 162 and injuring 432 (1917).

14 Jun – The Continental Army, later to become the United States Army, was established by the Continental Congress (1775).

15 Jun – Serbian forces under Prince Lazar defeated by Ottoman forces under Sultan Murad I in the Battle of Kosovo (1389). Both leaders and most of their forces were killed in the fighting.

16 Jun – French armies under Napoleon I defeated Prussian armies under Blucher at Ligny and Coalition armies (British, Dutch and Hanoverian) at Quatre Bras in Belgium (1815).

16 Jun – The Ford Motor Company under founder Henry Ford was incorporated (1903).

17 Jun – Vlad III “The Impaler” and his Wallachian troops attacked the Ottoman army camp under Mehmet II at night and tried to assassinate the Sultan (1462). The Sultan escaped but 15,000 of his troops were killed. Vlad III’s father was Vlad II Dracul, and the Irish novelist Bram Stoker associated him with Count Dracula in his famous novel Dracula (1897).

18 Jun – French forces under La Hire and inspired by Joan of Arc (1412-1431) decisively defeated the English and turned the tide in the Hundred Years War at the Battle of Patay (1429).

18 Jun – Combined British, Prussian, and Coalition armies crushed Napoleon’s forces at the Battle of Waterloo, ending the Napoleonic era in Europe (1815).

19-22 Jun – The Russian Black Sea fleet demolished a larger Ottoman fleet in the Battle of Athos (1807).

19 Jun – The first official, recorded baseball game occurred near Hoboken, New Jersey, in which the New York Baseball Club beat the Knickerbockers 23-1 (1846).

19-20 Jun – In the Battle of the Philippine Sea, a seven carrier fleet USN fleet under Admiral Spruance devastated a five carrier Japanese fleet under Ozawa (1944). This was known to Americans as the Great Marianas Turkey Shoot because of the huge losses of Japanese aircraft, and prevented further Japanese carrier operations.

20 Jun – On La Noche Triste, Aztec warriors drove Spaniards under Hernan Cortez out of Tenochtitlan (Mexico City), but the smallpox epidemic that had just begun in the city decimated the populace and ensured ultimate Spanish victory (1520).

20 Jun – Hoping to capitalize on German success in the north, Italy launched a costly and unsuccessful invasion of France (1940).

21 Jun – The first graduate of the first US medical school, John Archer, graduated with a bachelor of medicine degree (1765).

21 Jun – Japanese submarine I-25 shelled Fort Stevens in Oregon at the mouth of the Columbia River causing little damage (1942).

22 Jun – Germany invaded the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa (1941).

23-24 Jun – Scottish army under Robert Bruce defeated an English army under King Edward II and capturing Sterling Castle at the Battle of Bannockburn, thereby securing Scottish independence (1314).

24 Jun – The English fleet under Edward III defeated the French fleet in the Battle of Sluys, securing the English Channel for Britain and marking the beginning of the Hundred Years War (1340).

24 Jun – 7 Feb – French and Spanish forces besieged British troops holding the fortress at Gibraltar but, unable to block British resupply and reinforcement, failed and withdrew, securing British control of shipping between the Mediterranean and the Atlantic (1779-1783).

25-26 Jun – Civil War hero George Armstrong Custer and his detachment of the 7th US Cavalry were annihilated by Sioux, Cheyenne and Arapaho in the Battle of the Little Bighorn (1876).

27 Jun – Captain Joshua Slocum aboard the sloop Spray completed the first solo circumnavigation of the earth (24 April 1895 to 27 June 1898).

26 Jun to 22 Dec – 200,000 Ottoman troops and 400 ships under Suleiman the Magnificent defeated 7,500 Knights Hospitaller and Venetian soldiers and captured the Island of Rhodes (1522).

27 Jun – Following the crushing defeat of the Russian Navy in the Battle of Tsushima in May, Russian sailors on the battleship Potemkin mutinied against their officers. On 7 July the mutinous crew returned to Sevastopol to surrender but in harbor the Potemkin was sunk by the opening of sea valves before the crew could disembark (1905).

27 Jun – Panzer armies of Army Group Center met at Minsk in Byelorussia, encircling and destroying the Soviet 3rd, 4th, 10th and 11th armies (1941).

28 Jun – Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austria, and his wife Sophie were assassinated in Belgrade by Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip, resulting in an Austrian declaration of war on Serbia on 28 July, a Russian declaration of war on Austria, a German declaration of war on Russia, and a French declaration of war on Germany. Thus began the First World War (1914).

29 Jun – Crusader Prince Raymond of Antioch was defeated by Nur ad-Din, losing much of the Crusader principality of Antioch (1149).

30 Jun to 1 Jul – On the “night of sorrows”, Spanish fighters under Hernan Cortes escape from the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan after fierce fighting with heavy losses in personnel and equipment (1520).

1 Jul – Crusaders defeated Seljuk Turks at the Battle of Doryleum (1097).

1-3 Jul – Battle of Gettysburg, the culmination of Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s second invasion of the north, resulted in a strategic Union victory (1863).

1 Jul – American President Grover Cleveland secretly underwent a successful surgery on the yacht Oneida to remove a verrucous carcinoma in his mouth and jaw (1893).

1 Jul to 18 Sep – British and French attack German trenches, gaining a costly but small victory, in the Battle of the Somme (1916). Mechanized armored fighting vehicles known as tanks were first used in this battle.

2 Jul – Brigadier General John Hunt Morgan led a cavalry raid through Kentucky and parts of Indiana and Ohio (1863).

3 Jul – US Grant met with Pemberton, the commander of the Confederate garrison at Vicksburg (1863).

4 Jul – Vicksburg surrendered to Grant (1863).

4 Jul – Seljuk Turks under Saladin destroyed a Crusader army in the Battle of Hattin, in Galilee near the Sea of Tiberias (1187).

4-22 Jul – Hungarian troops led by John Hunyadi (1406-1456) besieged and conquered Belgrade in Serbia, destroying an Ottoman army under Mehmet II (1456).

5 Jul – Admiral David Farragut, hero of the Battle of New Orleans, was born (1801).

6 Jul – John Hus, having been declared a heretic at the Council of Constance, was burned at the stake (1415).

6 Jul – James II defeated James, Duke of Monmouth a the Battle of Sedgemoor (1685).

6 Jul – Rabies vaccine developed by Louis Pasteur and Emile Roux used on the first human patient, nine-year-old Joseph Meister (1885).

7 Jul – Adolf Hitler started the V-2 missile program (1943).

8 Jul – Peter the Great defeated Charles XII at Poltava, in the Ukraine (1709).

9 Jul – Confederate Cavalry led by John Hunt Morgan captured Tompkinsville, Kentucky (1861).

10 Jul – US carrier-based aircraft began airstrikes against Japan in preparation for invasion (1945).

11 Jul – American forces broke the 95 day siege of An Loc Vietnam (1972).

12 Jul – William III defeated the allied Irish and French at Aughrim, Ireland (1691).

12 Jul – British Admiral Lord Nelson lost his right eye at the siege of Calvi, in Corsica (1794).

13 Jul – Royalist forces in England defeat Parlimentarian forces at the beginning of the English Civil War in the Battle of Roundway Down (1643).

13 Jul – George Washington surrendered Fort Necessity to the French (1754).

14 Jul – The Ottomans were defeated by the Hungarians at the Battle of Belgrade (1456).

15 Jul – St. Vladimir Day – Vladimir Sviatoslavich the Great (958-1015) was Prince of Novgorod and spread Christianity to the Rus people in 988.

15 Jul – Jerusalem was captured by the Crusaders (1099).

15 Jul – In the First Battle of Tannenberg, Polish and allied forces destroyed a force of Teutonic knights, ending the power of the Teutonic knights in Europe, and winning the most important victory in Polish military history (1410).

16 Jul – American troops under Anthony Wayne captured Stony Point, NY (1779).

16 Jul to 17 Aug – Austrians and Bavarians under Prince Eugene of Savoy besieged and captured Belgrade from the Ottomans in the Austro-Turkish War of 1716–1718 (1717).

17 Jul – France defeated England at the Battle of Castillon, ending the Hundred Years War (1453).

17 Jul – The first US dental school, the Harvard School of Dental Medicine, was founded (1867).

18 Jul – The Spanish Civil War began (1936).

19 Jul – The Franco-Prussian War began with France’s declaration of war against Prussia (1870).

20 Jul – Tamerlane’s Mongols defeat the Turks at the Battle of Angora (1402).

20 Jul – Confederates under John Bell Hood attacked General Thomas’s Army of the Cumberland in the battle of Peachtree Creek (1864).

21 Jul – Napoleon defeated the Mamlukes at the Battle of the Pyramids (1798).

21 Jul – Confederate forces defeat Union troops in the First Battle of Manassas (1861).

22 Jul – An English army of 15,000 under King Edward I defeated a Scottish army of 6000 under Sir William Wallace at the Battle of Falkirk, the first major victory of the English longbowmen (1298).

22 Jul to 2 Sep – Union forces commanded by William Tecumsah Sherman invest, besiege and ultimately capture the City of Atlanta, defended by Confederates under John Bell Hood (1864).

22 July – Wiley Post became the first person to fly solo around the world, accomplishing the feat in the Winnie Mae and flying 15,596 miles (25,099 km) in seven days, 18 hours and 45 minutes (1933).

22 Jul – B-52 bombers bombed the DMZ between North and South Vietnam for the first time (1966).

23 Jul – Irish patriots rebelled against Great Britain (1803).

23 Jul – The Ford Motor Company sold its first car (1903).

23 Jul – Archibald Brown was killed when his son Eric Brown, an Army veteran, put a British Hawkins anti-tank grenade under the cushion of his bath chair in retaliation for what he perceived as abusive behavior towards him and his mother (1943). This sensational case was known as the Rayleigh bath chair murder.

23 Jul – Soviet troops took Lublin, Poland (1944).

24 Jul – Germans captured Rostov (1942).

25 Jul – British defeated a French army at Fort Niagara in Canada (1759).

26 Jul – British Forces captured Louisburg after a seven week siege (1758).

27 Jul – At the Battle of Bouvines in France Philip Augustus (France) defeated John (England).

28 Jul – Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, which begins World War 1 (1914).

29 Jul – The Army of the Grand Alliance was destroyed by the French at the Battle of Neerwinden (1693).

29 Jul – Mawenzi, the highest summit on Mount Kilimanjaro (19340 ft and the highest mountain in Africa), was first reached by the German climbers Edward Oehler and Fritz Klute (1912).

30 Jul – Confederates threw back the abortive Union attack at the Battle of the Crater (1864).

30 Jul – 3 Aug – A Tartar army from the Crimea under Khan Devlet I and a large force of Ottoman Janissaries combined to invade Russia during the Livonian war during the reign of Ivan the Terrible. At the Battle of Molodi, 60,000 Russians smashed the 120,000 invaders 40 miles south of Moscow, ending the hopes of the Tartars and Ottomans to conquer Russia (1572).

31 Jul – George Henry Thomas, Union General during the American Civil War, was born (1816).

31 Jul – William Clarke Quantrill, Confederate raider was born (1837).

1 Aug – Germany and Russia declare war against each other, France orders a general mobilization and the first German army units go to Luxembourg to prepare for the German invasion of France (1914).

2 Aug – During the night 820 US B-29 Super fortress bombers dropped a record total of 6632 tons of bombs on five Japanese cities including   Hachioji, Nagaoka, Mito, Toyama and the petroleum center of Kawasaki. Most of Toyama was obliterated (1945).

3 Aug – Battle of Lonato: The French defeated the Austrians (1796), Burma: Allied troops conquered Myitkyina, reopening the Burma Road (1944).

4 Aug – The traditional date when the Romans under Titus destroyed the Second Jewish Temple, built during the time of Ezra (70).

4 Aug – Two US destroyers engaged 3 North Vietnamese patrol boats in the Gulf of Tonkin; this served to spur America to greater involvement in Vietnam (1964).

5 Aug – Union forces captured Mobile Bay, Alabama (1864).

5 Aug – German army launched its assault on Liege, Belgium, opening the First World War (1914),

6 Aug – The first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima by the B-29 Enola Gay (1945).

7 Aug – President George H. W. Bush ordered a military buildup (Desert Shield) to prevent further Iraqi advances into Kuwait (1990).

8 Aug – Combined fleets of England and Holland defeat the Spanish Armada in the Battle of the Gravelines (1588).

8 Aug – Endurance, the ship of the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition under Ernest Shackleton, left Plymouth, England headed for Buenos Aires (1914). After Endurance was trapped in ice, he and his crew endured one of the greatest sea-faring survival stories in history.

8 Aug – Soviet Russia declared war on Japan and invaded Manchuria (1945).

9 Aug – Romans were routed by the Visigoths at the battle of Adrianople (378).

9 Aug – Rebels defeated Union General Banks’s force at the Battle of Cedar Mountain (1862).

10-21 Aug – Pueblo Indians revolt against Spanish rule, ultimately besieging and capturing the principle Spanish town of Santa Fe, New Mexico and ending Spanish domination of that area (1680).

10 Aug – In the Battle of Wilson’s Creek (in Missouri) Union General Lyon was killed (1861).

10 Aug – German chemist Felix Hoffman, employed at the Bayer Company, discovered acetylsalicylic acid. Later trademarked by Bayer as Aspirin, it is one of the most important drugs in history (1897).

11 Aug – Confederate General Jubal Early evacuated Winchester, Virginia after his raid into Maryland (1864).

12 Aug – The assassination of Metacom (commonly known as King Phillip) ended King Phillip’s War (1676).

12 Aug – Dr. Joseph Lister first used carbolic acid as a surgical disinfectant. The patient was James Greenless, aged 12, who had a leg fracture from being run over by a cart (1865).

13 Aug – Eagle Day in the Battle of Britain (the German name for the first day of a major air offensive) sees a marked increase in Luftwaffe daylight bombings of Britain as well as Luftwaffe casualties (1940).

14 Aug – In the Battle of Aljubarrota, Portuguese and English forces defeated Castilian forces, ensuring Portugese sovereignty (1385).

14 Aug – Portuguese forces under King John I and Henry the Navigator defeated troops from the Sultanate of Morocco to conquer the city of Cueta and the surrounding region, the jumping off point for the Umayyad invasion of Iberia in 710 (1415).

15-20 Aug – Muslim Arab forces under Umar ibn al Khattab routed Byzantine and Ghassanid Arab forces at the Battle of Yarmuk near modern Jordan, permanently capturing Syria and Palestine from Byzantium and setting up the Muslim conquest of Egypt (636).

15 Aug – Julian Carlton, a disgruntled employee of architect Frank Lloyd Wright murdered his mistress, Mamah Borthwick, and seven others, and set fire to the living quarters near Wright’s Taliesin studio (1914).

16 Aug – Continental troops and militia decimated British and Hessian forces foraging for supplies at the Battle of Benington, contributing to the major American victory over Burgoyne at Saratoga (1777).

17 Aug – Dakota War of 1862 began in the Minnesota Territory, with Dakota Sioux raiding white settlements and killing up to 800 settlers in response to treaty violations. The war lasted until after the Battle of Wood Lake at Camp Release in Sep (1862).

18 Aug – In the largest battle of the Franco-Prussian War, French armies managed a slim victory over attacking Prussians in the Battle of Gravelotte, but were unable to prevent the Germans from encircling and later capturing the city of Metz (1870).

19 Aug – The leader of the Russian Orthodox Church, Metropolitan Sergius, issued a Declaration proclaiming the absolute loyalty of the Church to the Soviet State and the government’s interests. This was in response to Communist persecution of believers (1927).

19 Aug – Over 6,000 British, Canadian and Polish commandos landed on beaches near Dieppe, France, hoping to secure a port and destroy German coastal defenses. Instead 3000 were killed or captured, nearly 100 aircraft were lost and the Royal Navy lost 33 landing craft and one destroyer against the 1500 men of the 302nd German static division and supporting Luftwaffe forces (1942).

20 Aug – Germans occupy Brussels in WW1 (1914).

21 Aug – In the Battle of Vimeiro, British and Portuguese soldiers under Sir Arthur Wellesley (Duke of Wellington, 1769-1852) scored the first major victory against Napoleon’s French forces in the Peninsular War (1808).

21 Aug – William Seward Burroughs patented the first practical adding machine in the United States (1888).

21 Aug – Italian Vincenzo Peruggia stole the Mona Lisa from the Louvre (1911). He was finally apprehended and the painting returned two years later.

22 Aug – The House of Lancaster under Henry Tudor, with the help of the forces of Thomas Stanley, defeated King Richard III of England and the House of York at the Battle of Bosworth Field, ending the Wars of the Roses and the reign of the Plantagenet dynasty in England (1485).

22 Aug – Pope Paul VI arrived in Bogotá, Columbia to become the first pope to visit Latin America (1968).

23 Aug – Armies of Ottoman Sultan Selim I crushed a far smaller Safavid (Persian) force under Shah Ismail I in the Battle of Chaldiran in northwest Iran, beginning a war that would last 41 years (1514).

24 Aug – Selim I and his Ottoman troops crushed the Mamlukes at the Battle of Marj Dabiq in northern Syria (the Ottoman-Mamluke War 1516-1517), allowing the Turks to annex Syria and demonstrating the primacy of cannon on the battlefield (1516).

24-27 Aug – Visigoths under Alaric capture and sack the City of Rome (410).

25 Aug – Prussian forces under Frederick the Great fight to a stalemate against Russian troops under Count William Fermor in the Battle of Zorndorf during the Seven Years War (1758).  The Seven Years Wars (1756-1763) was arguably the first truly world war, pitting Great Britain, Prussia, Hanover, other German states, and the Iroquois Confederation against France, Austria, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Saxony, and the Mughal Empire (modern India).

25 Aug – Kaiser Wilhelm II’s German troops destroyed the library at the Catholic University of Leuven, losing hundreds of thousands of irreplaceable documents (1914).

26 Aug – Seljuk Turks defeated Byzantines under Romanos IV after Pecheneg and Cuman Turkic mercenaries deserted and Romanos’ rival Doukas failed to support him at the Battle of Manzikert (1071). This destroyed Byzantine power in the heartland of Anatolia and began the terminal decline of the Empire.

26 Aug – English under Edward III defeat French under Philip VI in the Battle of Crecy, highlighting the superiority of the English longbow over the crossbow (1346).

27 Aug – In the first major battle after the Declaration of Independence, British ground and sea forces under William Howe defeat Continental forces under George Washington in the Battle of Long Island (1776).

28 Aug – The Battle of Heligoland Bight in the North Sea was the first naval battle in World War I. British battlecruisers, light cruisers, destroyers and submarines attacked and defeated a smaller number of German light cruisers, torpedo boats and minesweepers (1914).

29 Aug – With the fall of Belgrade (1521), Hungary had become the last Western bulwark against Ottoman expansion. Suleiman the Magnificent led an army of at least 55,000 which crushed a Hungarian army under King Louis II at the Battle of Mohacs (1526).

30 Aug – About 1,000 Creek warriors storm and capture Fort Mims, Alabama, killing or capturing over 500 defenders and other inhabitants. This was one of the greatest Indian victories against US forces during the Indian Wars (1813).

30 Aug – The maiden voyage of the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS 41D) began (1984).

31 Aug – The London cholera epidemic spread to the Soho District, killing 127 people on or near Broad Street in the first three days. Physician John Snow tracked the source to the water pump on Broad Street, and when the handle to the pump was removed on 8 Sep, the outbreak dwindled (1854).

31 Aug – Polish cavalry smashed Bolshevik invaders in the Battle of Komarow, the last great cavalry battle in history (1920).

31 Aug – The radio station 8MK in Detroit, MI, broadcast the first radio news program (1920).

31 Aug – Lawrence Olivier and Vivian Leigh, Hollywood screen stars, were married (1940).

31 Aug – Walter Cronkite began his career as anchor of CBS news, becoming the face of American news for a generation (1963).

1 Sep – Nazi Germany invades Poland to begin World War II (1939).

2 Sep – 8,200 British and 18,000 Egyptians and Sudanese under Sir Herbert Kitchener defeated 52,000 Sudanese Dervishes under Abdullah al-Tashi, killing 10,000 and capturing 5,000, in the Battle of Omdurman (1898).

3 Sep – Egyptian Mamluk cavalry under Baibars defeated a Mongol army in southeastern Galilee at the Battle of Ain Jalut, marking the end of the Mongol threat to Egypt (1260).

4 Sep – The last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, Romulus Augustus, was deposed with Germanic ruler Odoacer proclaimed himself “King of Italy”. This marked the end of the Western Roman Empire (476).

4 Sep – The Army of Northern Virginia crossed the Potomac River into Maryland in the first Confederate invasion of the North (1862).

4 Sep – The first commercial electric power plant in history began operations in New York City, inaugurating the electrical age (1882).

4 Sep – Meningitis vaccine was first offered in Great Britain (2006).

5-6 Sep – Catholic forces from Spain, the Bavarian League, and the Holy Roman Empire devastate a combined Swedish and Saxon army at the Battle of Nordlingen (1634).

5 Sep – Japanese American Iva Toguri D’Aquino was arrested in Yokohama by US military authorities under the suspicion of being the radio propagandist Tokyo Rose during World War II. She was later acquitted (1945).

5 Sep – Cassius Clay, later known as Muhammad Ali, won the gold medal for light heavyweight boxing in the 1960 Olympics in Rome (1960).

6 Sep – Human insulin was first produced by genetic engineering using E.coli bacteria. This improved insulin availability for diabetic patients (1978).

7 Sep – Richard I “The Lionheart” defeated Saladin in the Battle of Arsuf, thus returning control of the southern coast of Palestine to Crusader forces (1191).

7 Sep – Napoleon’s invading Grande Armee defeated Russian forces under General Mikhail Kutuzov in the Battle of Borodino, the largest and bloodiest day in the campaign (1812).

8 Sep – Harvard College, originally called the College at New Town, was established by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony (1636).

8 Sep – British and Americans fight to a draw in the Battle of Eutaw Springs, the last notable battle in the Carolinas during the War for Independence (1781).

8 Sep – The first football (soccer) season of the British Football League, the oldest association of football clubs in the world, began with 12 member clubs (1888).

8 Sep – Margaret Gorman of Washington DC, aged 16, became the first Miss America (1921).

9 Sep – King James IV of Scotland was killed leading his invading troops against the English in the Battle of Flodden Field (1513).

9-16 Sep – Italian troops attack British forces from their bases in Libya into British-controlled Egypt, capturing Sidi Barrani, an Egyptian port on the Mediterranean (1940).

10 Sep – A US fleet commanded by Oliver Perry defeated and captured a British fleet to gain control of the Great Lakes in the Battle of Lake Erie (1813).

11 Sep – 2,300 Scots under William Wallace defeated about 10,000 English soldiers under the Earl of Surrey at the Battle of Stirling Bridge (1297).

11 Sep – Moriscos. Spanish Moors that converted to Christianity, sometimes by force, were ordered to leave the country (1609).

11 Sep – With the opening ceremonies in Kaula Lampur, Malaysia became the first Asian country to host the Commonwealth Games (1998).

12 Sep – The accepted but uncertain date for the Battle of Marathon, the famous Greek victory over a Persian force over twice as large (490 BC).

12 Sep – During the Scottish Cup championship, and in the second greatest difference in score in football (soccer) history, Arbroath defeated Bon Accord 36-0 (1885).

13 Sep – Armies under the Byzantine General Belisarius  defeated forces of the Vandal kingdom in the Battle of Ad Decimum near Carthage in modern Tunisia (533).

13 Sep – British explorer Henry Hudson arrived at the river that would later bear his name, the Hudson River (1609).

13 Sep – Henry Bliss was the first person in the US killed in an automobile accident (1899).

14 Sep – Composer George Frideric Handel completed his oratorio, Messiah (1741). The famous work was first performed in Dublin, Ireland on 13 April 1742.

14 Sep – The French Grande Armee entered Moscow (1812).

15 Sep – In the First Sino-Japanese War, Japan defeated Chinese forces in the Battle of Pyongyang, compelling the Chinese to leave the Korean peninsula (1894).

16 Sep – American troops defending Harlem Heights in New York held off British attacks in what many historians consider to be George Washington’s first battlefield victory in the Revolution (1776).

17 Sep – Swedish and Saxon forces under the command of Gustavus Adolphus (1594-1632) crushed forces of the Holy Roman Empire, Hungary and Croatia in the Battle of Breitenfeld, a major Protestant victory in the Thirty Years’ War (1631).

17 Sep – Army of the Potomac under General George McClellan and Army of Northern Virginia under Robert E. Lee fought to a draw in the bloodiest day in US history at Antietam (1862).

18 Sep – Constantine I defeated his rival Licinius near Chalcedon in the province of Bithynia to become Emperor of the Roman Empire (324).

18 Sep – First mailing of envelopes containing anthrax spores to various locations in the US as part of the anthrax attacks that killed five (2001).

19 Sep – The Black Prince Edward of England led 6,000 Englishmen to victory against 11,000 Frenchmen, capturing the French King John II and plunging France into chaos in the Battle of Poitiers (1356).

19 Sep – 21 Nov – Soldiers from Bohemia and the Palatinate defeated forces of the Holy Roman Empire and captured the fortress at Pilsen in Bohemia in the first major battle of the Thirty Years’ War (1618).

20 Sep to 2 Oct – After his victory over the Crusaders at the Battle of Hattin, Saladin besieged and conquered the city of Jerusalem, thus ending the First Kingdom of Jerusalem (1187).

21 Sep – A combined British and French force smashed a large Chinese army in the Battle of Palikao of the Second Opium War, leaving Beijing to be occupied two weeks later (1860).

22 Sep – Iraq invaded Iran, hoping to stabilize Iraq in the face of the Shia Iranian revolution and gain control over oil fields and transport routes. The war turned into a bloody stalemate with over one million people killed, and lasted from 22 Sep 1980 to 20 Aug 1988.

23 Sep – In the Battle of Arnemuiden, the first naval engagement of the Hundred Years War, a large French fleet attacked and destroyed a small British one (1338). It was the first naval battle in European history which employed cannon.

24 Sep to 6 Oct – British land and sea forces defeated Spanish forces and besieged and conquered Manila in the Battle of Manila during the Seven Years War (1762).

24 Sep – Imperial Japanese forces defeated the last remnants of the Satsuma Rebellion in the Battle of Shiroyama (1877).

25 Sep – Combined force of French, Hungarians, Venetians, Genoans, Bulgarians, Wallachians, and others from the Holy Roman Empire defeated by Ottoman Turks and Serbians in the Battle of Nicopolis in Bulgaria (1396).

26 Sep to 11 Nov – US troops under John J. Pershing and French troops under Henri Gouraud attacked German defenders outside Paris in the Meuse-Argonne offensive near the end of WWI. They achieved a major victory (1918).

26 Sep – During the Frankish Civil War in the Battle of Compiègne , troops loyal to Ragenfrid defeated those loyal to Theudoald, the heir to the throne. Shortly afterward Charles Martel (688-741), hero of the Battle of Tours (732) which saved France from Moorish domination, seized power (715).

27 Sep to 15 Oct – 23,000 soldiers of the Holy Roman Empire, Bohemia and Spain hold Vienna against an Ottoman siege army of 120,000 under Suleiman the Magnificent (1529). The Turks had reached their high-water mark in Europe.

27 Sep – Jean Francois Champollion, a French philologist and orientalist, finished deciphering the Rosetta Stone, a stone including Greek, demotic script, and Egyptian hieroglyphs. This enabled scholars to understand hieroglyphics for the first time (1822).

28 Sep – Filipino guerillas in a surprise attack killed 78 soldiers of the 9th US Infantry in the Balangiga massacre (1901).

28 Sep – Sir Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin at Saint Mary’s Hospital in London when he noticed a petri dish contaminated by blue-green (Penicillium notatum) mold with a halo of impaired staphylococcal growth around the mold (1928).

29 Sep – In the Italo-Turkish War (29 Sep 1911 to 18 Oct 1912), Italy declared war on the Ottoman Empire, conquering Libya from the Ottomans and triggering the First Balkan War (8 Oct 1912 to 30 May 1913).

30 Sep – During the War of Austrian Succession, combined Franco-Spanish forces overcame defending troops from Piedmont and Sardinia, but at such a cost and so late in the year that they withdrew west of the Alps a short time later (1744).

1 Oct – Macedonian King Alexander the Great led Greek forces to smash Persian troops under Darius III in the Battle of Gaugamela, not far from modern Mosul. As a result Babylon, Mesopotamia and half of Persia fell under Greek control (331 BC).

1 Oct – The Ford Motor Company launched the Model T for $825, making cars available to the middle class and revolutionizing transportation in American (1908).

1-9 Oct – The heavily favored Chicago White Sox were defeated in the 1919 World Series by the upstart Cincinnati Reds in what became infamous as the “Black Sox scandal”; an attempt by some White Sox players to throw (lose) the series in return for cash (1919).

1 Oct – Allied troops entering Naples discovered an ongoing typhus epidemic among the civilian population with over 400 fatalities. A mass delousing program with DDT aborted the outbreak (1943).

1 Oct – Mao Zedong established the People’s Republic of China (1949).

2 Oct – In an attempt to reassert Norwegian domination over parts of Scotland, the King of Norway invaded and fought the inconclusive Battle of Largs against the Scots (1263).

3-4 Oct – 160 US Special Operations soldiers in Mogadishu, Somalia beat off thousands of attacking Somali militiamen, losing 18 while killing hundreds of Somalis. As a result, however, the US and UN forces withdraw from Somalia, thus achieving the goal of the militiamen (1993).

4 Oct – British and Hessian defenders commanded by William Howe drove back the Continental Army attack under George Washington at Germantown near Philadelphia (1777).

5 Oct – In the Battle of the Thames, William Henry Harrison’s US militia smashed the combined troops of Britain and the Indian Confederation under the Shawnee Chief Tecumseh (1813). Chief Tecumseh was killed and the Native coalition collapsed.

6 Oct – Egypt and Syria, supported by Iraq, Jordan, Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, and even Cuba, launched a surprise attack on Israeli forces during the Jewish Holy Day of Yom Kippur (1973). After heavy early losses, the Israelis counterattacked and destroyed large Syrian and Egyptian forces.

7 Oct – Ships of the Holy League (Venice, Genoa, Spain, Greece, and others) crushed the Ottoman navy at the Naval Battle of Lepanto (1571).

8 Oct to 1 Nov – The Council of Chalcedon adopts the Chalcedonian Creed, affirming and describing Jesus’ dual nature as fully human and fully divine (451).

8 Oct – American SGT Alvin York killed 23 German soldiers and captured 132 in the Battle of the Argonne Forest, earning the Congressional Medal of Honor for his heroism (1918).

9 Oct – Union troops fought off a Confederate attack in the Battle of Santa Rosa Island (1861).

9 Oct – Second mailing of envelopes containing anthrax spores to various locations in the US as part of the anthrax attacks that killed five (2001).

10 Oct – St. Paul’s Cathedral in London survived a direct hit by a Luftwaffe bomb in the Battle of Britain (1940).

11 Oct – Swiss Protestant pastor and reformer Huldrych Zwingli was killed in action fighting soldiers from Roman Catholic cantons (1531).

11 Oct – The Second Vatican Council, which heralded groundbreaking changes in the Catholic Church, began in Rome under Pope John XXIII (1962). It ended in December 1965.

11-12 Oct – A US Navy task force under Robert L Ghormley defeated a Japanese task force under Gunichi Mikawa in the Battle of Cape Esperance (1942).

12 Oct – In the First Battle of Passchendale, French and British Commonwealth troops, especially from Australia and New Zealand, attacked German trenches in France (1917). They were repulsed, and New Zealand suffered almost 3000 casualties, the highest single day toll in the nation’s history.

13 Oct – King Philip IV “The Fair” of France simultaneously imprisoned and later executed hundreds of men of the Knights Templar, effectively destroying the Order (1307).

13 Oct – British and Canadian troops defeated an American invasion in the Battle of Queenston Heights in Ontario, Canada (1812).

13 Oct – In the first game of the American Basketball Association, the Oakland Oaks beat the Anaheim Amigos 134-129 (1967).

14 Oct – Napoleon’s French armies crushed the Duke of Brunswick’s larger Prussian armies in the Battles of Jena and Auerstadt in Germany (1806). The French were able to occupy Prussia as a result.

14 Oct – Victorio, one of the greatest Apache warriors, was killed by Mexican soldiers in Northern Mexico during the Tres Castillos Massacre (1880).

15 to 20 Oct – Napoleon’s Grand Armee defeated the Austrian army in Bavaria at the Battle of Ulm (1805).

15 Oct – After losing the Battle of Waterloo, Napoleon began his final exile to St Helena in the South Atlantic (1815).

16-19 Oct – Napoleon is defeated by the combined forces of Russia, Austria, Prussia, Sweden, Saxony and Wurttemberg at the Battle of Leipzig, losing all of his possessions in Eastern Europe (1813).

17 Oct – Combined French, British, Sardinian and Ottoman forces besieged the Russian fortress and naval base at Sevatopol in the Crimea, eventually leading to an allied victory (17 Oct 1854 to 9 Sep 1855).

18 Oct – Troops under Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah completely destroyed the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. The Church had been built on the traditional site of the Resurrection and Burial of Christ (1009).

18 Oct – Wallachians led by Michael the Brave defeated Transylvanians under Andrew Bathory in the Battle of Selimbar, thus unifying Romania for the first time (1599).

19 Oct – Roman forces under Scipio Africanus crush Carthaginian forces under Hannibal in the Battle of Zama near the city of Carthage, ending the Second Punic War (202 BC).

19 Oct – Albert Schatz isolated Streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis (1943).

19 Oct – On Black Monday, stock markets beginning in Hong Kong, spreading through Europe and into the United States, plummeted (1987). The US Dow Jones industrial average (DJIA) dropped almost 23%.

20 Oct – During the Greek War of Independence, Great Britain, France and Russia allied against the Ottomans and the Egyptians, crushing them in the naval Battle of Navarino (1827).

20 Oct – Rutgers, Columbia, Yale and Princeton jointly wrote the rules for American football (1873).

21 Oct to 2 Jun – The Crusader armies began their siege of Antioch, defeating two Muslim armies sent to relieve the city and finally conquering it on 2 Jun (1097-1098).

21 Oct – Ferdinand Magellan discovered the Straits that would later bear his name, connecting the Atlantic and the Pacific (1520).

21 Oct – Admiral Horatio Nelson commanding the British fleets won one of the greatest victories in naval history, defeating the combined French and Spanish fleets in the Battle of Trafalgar (1805).

22 Oct – In the Battle of Red Bank, Continental Army soldiers repulsed a Hessian attack on Fort Mercer in New Jersey, thus continuing to interpret supplies to British troops stationed in Philadelphia (1776).

23 Oct to 11 Nov – Allied forces under Bernard Montgomery defeated the Afrika Corps under Georg Stumme in the Second Battle of El Alamein, which turned the tide of war against the Axis in Africa (1942).

24 Oct – The first Transcontinental Telegraph was completed with lines from St Louis and Carson City meeting in Salt Lake City and making the Pony Express obsolete (1861).

24 Oct – Annie Edson Taylor became the first person to go over Niagara Falls (Horseshoe Falls) in a barrel and survive (1901).

24 Oct to 12 Nov – Italian forces are smashed by German and Austrian troops in the Italian Alps in the Battle of Caporetto (1917).

24 Oct – On Black Thursday, the US stock market collapsed, spreading financial instability worldwide and initiating the Great Depression (1929).

24 Oct – The Toronto Blue Jays won the World Series, the first time it was done by a team from outside the United States (1992).

25 Oct – About 9,000 English knights, men at arms and longbowmen commanded by Henry V destroyed up to 30,000 French soldiers commanded by Charles d’Albret in the Battle of Agincourt (1415).

26 Oct – British, Canadian and Mohawk troops defeated an American attack in Southern Quebec intended to capture Montreal at the Battle of the Chateauguay (1813).

27 Oct – The traditional date in which the Roman Emperor Constantine was said to have received the Vision of the Cross (312). He later became the first Roman Emperor to legally recognize Christianity, though he did not make it the official religion.

27 Oct – Ethiopian rebel forces defeated the supporters of Emperor Iyasu in the Battle of Segale, and Zawditu was proclaimed Empress (1916).

28 Oct – The Battle of Milvian Bridge in which Roman legions loyal to Constantine defeated those loyal to Maxentius, thus securing the Roman Empire for Constantine (312).

28 Oct to 3 Nov – Bulgarian forces defeated Ottoman troops in the Battle of Lule Burgas (1912), causing the Turks to lose most of Thrace, the last European portion of the Empire.

29 Oct – Mamluks defeated Mongol army in Western Syria at the Battle of Homs, ending the Mongol threat to the Mamluks (1281).

30 Oct – English troops repelled a Spanish invasion to retake Jamaica in the Battle of Ocho Rios (1657).

30 Oct – Orson Wells performed the radio broadcast of author H.G. Wells’ famous story, the War of the Worlds. Its realism caused many to think that it was really happening (1938).31 Oct – Sculptor Gutzon Borglum completed his presidential sculptures on Mount Rushmore (1941).

30 Oct – The first successful kidney transplant in Great Britain was performed by Michael Woodruff in the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary (1960).

30 Oct – Boxer Muhammad Ali (formerly Cassius Clay) defeated George Foreman in Kinshasa, Zaire, in the famous match known as the Rumble in the Jungle (1974).

31 Oct – In the Battle of Beersheba, British Commonwealth troops defeated Turkish and German forces in what was billed at the last successful cavalry charge in history (1917).

1 Nov – Boston Female Medical School, the first such school in the world exclusively for women, opened its doors to the first class of twelve (1848).

1 Nov – Dr. J. E. Gillman announced the first x-ray treatment for breast cancer (1901).

1 Nov – The Royal Navy lost the cruisers HMS Good Hope and HMS Monmouth in the Battle of Coronel against a German fleet off Chile (1914).

2 Nov – Outnumbered Greek forces defeated Italian invaders at the Battle of Elaia-Kalamas, ending the Italian offensive and later driving the Italians back into Albania (1940).

3 Nov – The German revolution began when 40,000 Kriegsmarine sailors took over the port of Kiel, thus precipitating the fall of the Imperial government and ending World War I (1918).

4 Nov – Benjamin F. Palmer received the first US patent for an artificial leg (1846).

4 Nov – In the Battle of Johnsonville, Confederate forces under Nathan Bedford Forrest destroyed a Union supply base, slowing a Union advance through Tennessee (1864).

5 Nov – Badly outnumbered British and Australian troops defeated a Chinese division in the Battle of Pakchon, stopping the first phase of the Chinese offensive into North Korea (1950).

6 Nov – Swedish king Gustavus Adolphus was killed during the Protestant victory in the Battle of Lutzen (1632).

6 Nov – Rutgers defeated Princeton in the first intercollegiate American football game in New Brunswick, NJ (1869).

7 Nov – Future President William Henry Harrison defeated Tecumseh’s confederacy at the Battle of Tippecanoe (1811).

8 Nov – Armies from the Catholic League, Spain and the Holy Roman Empire converged on Bohemian forces, defeating them in the Battle of White Mountain near Prague (1620).

9 Nov – In the Battle of Posada, approximately 10,000 Wallachian soldiers ambushed and defeated an army of 30,000 Hungarians, thereby maintaining their freedom and foiling Charles I designs on expanding his realm (1330).

10 Nov – Ottomans under Murad II defeat Papal forces under Wladyslav III of Poland trying to relieve Turkish pressure on Constantinople in the Battle of Varna on the Black Sea coast (1444).

10 Nov – Dr. Rudolph Matas of Louisiana anesthetized a patient for surgery in the spinal, subarachnoid space, thus pioneering spinal anesthesia (1899).

11 Nov – Searching for a way to find the area under the curve Y=f(x), Gottfried Liebnitz introduced integral calculus (1675).

11 Nov – The Virginia Military Institute was founded in Lexington, Virginia (1839).

11 Nov – Germany signed an armistice to end World War I (1918).

12 Nov – The United States Navy pounded the Imperial Japanese Navy in the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal (third and fourth battles of Savo Island), sinking two battleships, one heavy cruiser and three destroyers while losing two light cruisers and seven destroyers (1942).

13 Nov – During the first English Civil War, the Parliamentarian army stopped the Royalist advance on London at the Battle of Turnham Green (1642).

14 Nov – The Battle of Ia Drang began, the first major engagement between US and North Vietnamese forces, ending in a stalemate four days later (1965).

15 Nov – Francisco Pizarro, commanding Spanish and native forces, defeated an Inca army and captured Cuzco, their capital (1533). The Incas would later return and besiege Cuzco but failed to retake it.

16 Nov – The Spanish explorer Francisco Pizarro and almost 200 conquistadors defeated and killed over 2,000 Inca warriors and captured the Inca Emperor Atahualpa (1532).

17 Nov – The Taira clan defeated the Minamoto clan at the Battle of Mizushima (1183). However the Minamoto clan eventually prevailed and won the Genpei War, taking power over Japan.

18 Nov – 27,000 Haitian rebels defeated 2,000 French troops at the Battle of Vertiere, ending the Haitian revolution and resulting in the establishment of the nation of Haiti (1803).

19 Nov – Soviet counterattack (Operation Uranus) encircled German 6th Army under Von Paulus at Stalingrad (1942).

19 Nov – Football (soccer) legend Pele scored his 1000th goal (1969).

20 Nov – US Marines invaded Tarawa, conquering the island in three days while losing 1000 Marines and the USS Liscome Bay. 4700 Japanese soldiers and laborers died (1943).

21 Nov – Mongol leader Timur defeated Georgian King Bagrat V and captured the capital of Tiblisi (1386). However, the Georgian nation did not fall entirely to the Muslim Mongols and thereby retained its Christian identity.

21 Nov – Port Arthur in Manchuria was conquered by the Japanese in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894).

21 Nov – American disc jockey Alan Freed, the man who coined the term “rock and roll”, was fired from the radio station WABC for taking bribes to play songs on the radio, called payola (1959).

22 Nov – British Naval and Marine forces seized Portobello, Panama, from the Spanish in the War of Jenkins’ Ear (1739).

23 Nov – Castilian Christian forces under King Ferdinand of Castile conquered the Muslim-held city of Seville after a 16-month siege (1248).

24 Nov – Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species, the book that ushered in the Theory of Evolution and gave a biological basis to modern naturalism (1859).

24 Nov – In the Battle of Lookout Mountain, part of the Chattanooga, Tennessee campaign, Ulysses Grant’s Union forces defeated Braxton Bragg’s Confederates (1863).

24 Nov – Lee Harvey Oswald, the alleged killer of President John F. Kennedy, was murdered on live television in the basement of the Dallas police department by nightclub owner Jack Ruby (1963).

25 Nov – British troops captured Fort Duquesne at the forks of the Ohio River in modern Pittsburg, wresting control of the waterways and the resultant trade from the French (1758).

25 Nov to 2 Dec – In the Battle of the Chongchon River, Chinese armies decimated Korean and US troops in North Korea, setting up the UN withdrawal and Chinese recapture of Seoul on 7 Jan (1950).

26 Nov – The US National Hockey League was formed (1917).

26 Nov – Germany began V1 and V2 attacks on Antwerp, Belgium (1944).

27 Nov – Macy’s first Thanksgiving Day parade is held (1924).

27 Nov – 67,000 Chinese forces assaulted 30,000 US soldiers and Marines approaching the border between China and North Korea at the Battle of Chosin Reservoir (1950).

27 Nov – In an American Basketball Association game between the Kentucky Colonels and the Los Angeles Stars, Penny Ann Early became the first female professional basketball player (1968).

28 Nov – The Kingdom of Hawaii was recognized as an independent nation by the United Kingdom and by France (1795).

28 Nov – Beethoven’s Piano Concerto No. 5 in E-flat major, Op. 73, premiered at the Gewandhaus in Leipzig (1811).

28 Nov – Frank Duryea won the first automobile race in America, traveling 54 miles from Jackson Park in Chicago to Evanston, Illinois in 10 hours (1895).

28 Nov – British and Boers fought to a draw in the Battle of Modder River in the Second Boer War (1899).

28 Nov – After closing for the opening months of World War I, the New York Stock Exchange reopened (1914).

29 Nov – Natchez Indians destroyed Fort Rosalie in Mississippi, killing 138 Frenchmen, 35 Frenchwomen, 56 children, and taking hundreds of people captive (1729).

29 Nov – American missionaries Dr. Marcus Whitman, his wife Narcissa, and 15 others are massacred by Umatilla and Cayuse Indians in Oregon, resulting in the Cayuse War. 54 other women and children were captured and held fr ransom (1847).

29 Nov – Vivien Thomas and Alfred Blalock performed the first successful human surgery to treat Blue Baby Syndrome caused by the Tetralogy of Fallot (1944).

29 Nov – The Atari company released Pong, the first commercially successful video game (1972).

30 Nov – The Russian navy destroyed the Ottoman fleet anchored in the harbor of Sinop in northern Anatolia during the Battle of Sinop (1853).

1 Dec – Portugal proclaims King Joao IV as its ruler, ending the unity of the Iberian Peninsula (1640).

1 Dec – Henry Ford’s Ford Motor Company introduced the moving assembly line, cutting time and costs in producing cars (1913).

1 Dec – With Nagumo’s carrier fleet in the Northern Pacific steaming towards Hawaii, Emperor Hirohito of Japan gave final approval for Yamamoto’s attack on Pearl Harbor, thus making war inevitable (1941).

2 Dec – At Austerlitz, Napoleon Bonaparte defeated a larger combined force from Russia, Austria, and the Holy Roman Empire, thus eliminating the Holy Roman Empire as a historical entity and setting up war with Prussia in 1806 (1805).

3 Dec – The German Customs Union established the first periodic census in Germany (1834).

3 Dec – The Duquesne Country and Athletic Club in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania defeated an all-star collection of early football players 16-0, in the first all-star game for professional American football (1898).

3 Dec – The musical Camelot, later associated with the Kennedy administration, debuted at the Majestic Theatre on Broadway (1960).

3 Dec – Pakistan launched a pre-emptive strike against India, beginning the Indo-Pakistani War (1971).

4 Dec – After harassing Japanese forces for almost one month and cutting off Toshinari Shoji’s withdrawal from Koli Point, Evans Carlson led 2nd Marine Raider battalion back into the US perimeter on Guadalcanal (1942).

5 Dec – Christopher Columbus became the first European to set foot on Hispanola, thus “discovering” the New World (1492).

5 Dec – Frederick the Great’s Prussian armies routed Austrian forces more than twice their number at the Battle of Leuthen, thus securing the province of Silesia (1757).

5 Dec – Former US President John Quincy Adams took his seat in the US House of Representatives, becoming the only US President to serve in the House after leaving Executive Office (1831).

5 Dec – Utah ratified the 21st amendment, becoming the 36th state to do so and ending Prohibition (1933).

6 Dec – Troops of the Mughal Empire in India attacked a fortress held by forces loyal to Sikh Guru Gobind Singh and were driven off with heavy losses in the Battle of Chamkaur (1704).

7 Dec – The Royal Opera House, the third theater on the site, opened in Covent Garden, London (1732).

7 Dec – Delaware became the first state to ratify the new US Constitution (1787).

7 Dec – Japanese naval and air forces under Isoroku Yamamoto attack the US Naval base at Pearl Harbor (1941).

7 Dec – Greek Orthodox Patriarch Athenagoras I and Roman Catholic Pope Paul VI mutually lifted the orders of excommunication that were written in the Great Schism of 1054 (1965).

8 Dec – In retaliation for their defeat at the Battle of Coronel, the British trapped and destroyed a German South Atlantic squadron, including two armored cruisers and three light cruisers, in the Battle of the Falkland Islands (1914).

8 Dec – Former Beatles singer John Lennon was shot and killed by Mark David Chapman outside the Dakota apartment complex in New York City (1980).

9 Dec – The Khazars, a nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, invaded Persia and defeated Arab Muslim forces of the Umayyad Caliphate at the Battle of Marj Ardabil (730).

9 Dec – America’s oldest rifle club, the Massachusetts Rifle Association, was founded (1875).

9 Dec – After the conclusion of the main portion of the Nuremberg Trials, the Doctors’ Trial began, in which 23 Nazi physicians and others were tried for inhuman experimentation and mass murder Seven were acquitted (1946).

9 Dec – A Charlie Brown Christmas by Peanuts creator Charles Schultz premiered on CBS (1965).

10 Dec – In the Brown Dog Riots, after passage of the Cruelty to Animals Act of 1876, medical students and feminists clashed with London police over vivisection practices in medical education (1907).

10 Dec – As part of the conquest of Singapore, Japanese torpedo bombers sank the HMS Repulse and HMS Prince of Wales, the first capital ships to be sunk solely by air power on the open sea (1941).

11-15 Dec – The Army of the Potomac under General Ambrose Burnside is decimated in frontal attacks against the fortified Army of Northern Virginia under Lee at Fredericksburg (1862).

11 Dec – With WW2 looming, King Edward VIII of the United Kingdom abdicated to marry American widow Wallace Simpson. Edward’s younger brother George became king (1936).

12 Dec – The Byzantine Emperor Heraclius defeated a smaller Persian force at the Battle of Ninevah, ending the Byzantine-Sassanid War (602-628) but weakening both nations so much that they were overwhelmed by Muslim Arab armies within a decade (627).

13 Dec – The Massachusetts Bay Colony established three companies of militia for defense against Native Americans, the forerunners of the US Army National Guard and ultimately, of the US Army (1636).

13 Dec – Apollo 17 astronauts Harrison Schmitt and Eugene Cernan performed the third and final moon walk of the program. As of 2016 they were still the last humans to walk on the moon (1972).

14 Dec – In preparation for their assault on New Orleans, the Royal Navy captured Lake Borgne, Louisiana (1814).

14 Dec – Norwegian Roald Amundsen and his expedition reached the South Pole (1911).

15 Dec – Gone with the Wind premiered at Loew’s Grand Theater in Atlanta, Georgia (1939).

15 Dec – The Vandals of North Africa were vanquished by a much smaller Byzantine army under Belisarius near ancient Carthage in the Battle of Tricamarum, thus ending the Vandal Kingdom forever (533).

16 Dec – At the Battle of Noryang, Japanese naval forces sent to evacuate troops from their invasion of Korea were frustrated by Chinese and Korean fleets (1598).

17 Dec – Kampfgruppe Peiper, part of the 1st SS Panzer Division under Joachim Peiper, massacred 84 American prisoners of war near Malmedy, Belgium, in the Battle of the Bulge (1944).

17 Dec – Davina Thompson survived the first heart, lung and liver transplant in history (1986).

18 Dec – Soldiers from Portuguese Angola in Southern Africa, allied with the local Mbundu and Imbangla warriors, defeated a smaller force from the Kingdom of Kongo at the Battle of Mbumbi (1622).

18 Dec – Members of the American Antarctic Mountaineering Expedition summited Vinson Massif, the highest mountain in Antarctica (1966).

19 Dec – British forces captured Fort Niagara on Lake Erie during the War of 1812 (1813).

20 Dec – The American Volunteer Group, known as the Flying Tigers, was establishing in China to fight Japanese invaders in World War II (1941).

21 Dec – In the Battle of Linuesa, a major engagement in the Spanish Reconquest of Iberia from the Moors, Castilian troops beat invading Muslim forces from the Emirate of Grenada (1361).

21 Dec – William Bradford and the Mayflower Pilgrims landed on Plymouth Rock in Plymouth, Massachusetts and founded Plymouth Colony (1620).

21 Dec– The first crossword puzzle, Arthur Wynne’s “word-cross”, was published in the New York World (1913).

21 Dec – The world’s first full-length animated feature, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, opened at the Carthay Circle Theatre (1937).

22 Dec – After a six month long siege against 200,000 Turks, 1,500 remaining Knights Hospitalier evacuated the Island of Rhodes and moved to Malta, becoming the Knights of Malta (1522).

23 Dec – Near the beginning of the Reign of Terror, French revolutionaries outnumbered and massacred a Royalist counterrevolutionary force in the Battle of Savenay, part of the War in the Vendee (1793).

24 Dec – George Washington’s Continental Army surprised Hessian troops employed by the British at Trenton, NJ (1776).

25 Dec – Boer commandos defeated a force of British regulars in the Battle of Groenkop in the Second Boer War (1901).

26 Dec – Patton’s Third Army broke the encirclement of Bastogne by German forces in the Battle of the Bulge (1944).

27 Dec – The schooner USS Carolina was sunk by British naval forces attempting to take New Orleans in the War of 1812 (1813).

27 Dec – The national anthem of India, Jana Gana Mana, was first sung in the Calcutta Session of the Indian National Congress (1911).

27 Dec – Japan commissioned the first purpose built aircraft carrier in the world, Hōshō (1922).

27 Dec – 29 nations signed the agreement creating the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (1945).

27 Dec – Pope John Paul II visited his would-be assassin, the Turk Mehmet Ali Ağca, in Rebibbia’s prison and forgave him for the 1981 attack on him in St. Peter’s Square (1983).

28 Dec – Ethiopian troops supporting the United Nations Transitional Federal Government marched into the Somali Capital of Mogadishu (2006).

29 Dec – 500 US Cavalry and artillery under Colonel James Forsyth defeated 120 Sioux warriors, killing some women and children, in the Wounded Knee Massacre, the last battle of the Indian Wars (1890).

30 Dec – Troops from the House of Lancaster defeated soldiers from the House of York in the Battle of Wakefield (1460).

31 Dec – Colonial Militia under Richard Montgomery, Benedict Arnold and Daniel Morgan, and Canadians under James Livingston, were driven off from their siege of Quebec during the American Revolution (1775).

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