Numbers for Life and Work

Some people love numbers, working with them, playing with them, and thinking about them. Others do not. Many don’t even have a basic understanding of how to use numbers in their work. Here are the basics…

While serving in Iraq, an officer colleague of mine was called upon to estimate the exposure from a radiation source that our soldiers found on a rooftop in Baghdad. He did the calculations and gave them to me to check. This officer was industrious, dedicated, and smart, but he had made a decimal place error and overestimated the exposure by a factor of 1,000. My colleague hadn’t made such calculations for years, and his mistake could have happened to anyone. But had this estimate gone to the commanding general, he would have had to evacuate the area and send many troops back home for medical monitoring.

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Useful Quotations on the Meaning of Life

Pithy Prose for Politicians, Preachers, Professors, Pundits, and Public Speakers.

Contemplation is the highest form of activity. Aristotle.

If you’re feeling helpless, help someone. Aung San Suu Kyi.

“What is a fear of living? It’s being preeminently afraid of dying. It is not doing what you came here to do, out of timidity and spinelessness. The antidote is to take full responsibility for yourself – for the time you take up and the space you occupy. If you don’t know what you’re here to do, then just do some good.” Maya Angelou

“Life has no meaning. Each of us has meaning and we bring it to life. It is a waste to be asking the question when you are the answer.” Joseph Campbell

“You will never be happy if you continue to search for what happiness consists of. You will never live if you are looking for the meaning of life.” Albert Camus

“1877. The vocation of humanity is to show forth the image of God and to be transformed into the image of the Father’s only Son. This vocation takes a personal form since each of us is called to enter into the divine beatitude; it also concerns the human community as a whole.” The Catholic Church, Catechism of the Catholic Church

You keep waiting for the moral of your life to become obvious, but it never does. Work, work, work. No moral, no plot, no eureka! You might as well be living inside a photocopier. Douglas Coupland.

“In order to lead a meaningful life, you need to cherish others, pay attention to human values and try to cultivate inner peace.” Dalai Lama XIV

“We are born and we die; and between these two most important events in our lives more or less time elapses which we have to waste somehow or other. In the end it does not seem to matter much whether we have done so in making money, or practicing law, or reading or playing, or in any other way, as long as we felt we were deriving a maximum of happiness out of our doings.” Clarence Darrow

“What is the meaning of it, Watson? said Holmes solemnly as he laid down the paper. “What object is served by this circle of misery and violence and fear? It must tend to some end, or else our universe is ruled by chance, which is unthinkable. But what end? There is the great standing perennial problem to which human reason is as far from an answer as ever.” Arthur Conan Doyle

“If there is any intelligence guiding this universe, philosophy wishes to know and understand it and reverently work with it; if there is none, philosophy wishes to know that also, and face it without fear. If the stars are but transient coagulations of haphazard nebulae, if life is a colloidal accident, impersonally permanent and individually fleeting, if man is only a compound of chemicals, destined to disintegrate and utterly disappear, if the creative ecstasy of art, and the gentle wisdom of the sage, and the willing martyrdom of saints are but bright incidents in the protoplasmic pullulation of the earth, and death is the answer to every problem and the destiny of every soul–then philosophy will face that too, and try to find within that narrowed circle some significance and nobility for man.” Will Durant

“What is the meaning of human life, or of organic life altogether? To answer this question at all implies a religion. Is there any sense then, you ask, in putting it? I answer, the man who regards his own life and that of his fellow creatures as meaningless is not merely unfortunate but almost disqualified for life.” Albert Einstein

The purpose of life is not to be happy. It is to be useful…honourable…compassionate, to have it make some difference that you have lived and lived well. Ralph Waldo Emerson

“If there is meaning in life at all, then there must be meaning in suffering.” Viktor E. Frankl

“The human race is a monotonous affair. Most people spend the greatest part of their time working in order to live, and what little freedom remains so fills them with fear that they seek out any and every means to be rid of it.” Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

“The only meaning our lives have is the meaning we give them.” Robert Hellenga, Philosophy Made Simple

“About once or twice every month I engage in public debates with those whose pressing need it is to woo and to win the approval of supernatural beings. Very often, when I give my view that there is no supernatural dimension, and certainly not one that is only or especially available to the faithful, and that the natural world is wonderful enough—and even miraculous enough if you insist—I attract pitying looks and anxious questions. How, in that case, I am asked, do I find meaning and purpose in life? How does a mere and gross materialist, with no expectation of a life to come, decide what, if anything, is worth caring about?

Depending on my mood, I sometimes but not always refrain from pointing out what a breathtakingly insulting and patronizing question this is. (It is on a par with the equally subtle inquiry: Since you don’t believe in our god, what stops you from stealing and lying and raping and killing to your heart’s content?) Just as the answer to the latter question is: self-respect and the desire for the respect of others—while in the meantime it is precisely those who think they have divine permission who are truly capable of any atrocity—so the answer to the first question falls into two parts. A life that partakes even a little of friendship, love, irony, humor, parenthood, literature, and music, and the chance to take part in battles for the liberation of others cannot be called ‘meaningless’ except if the person living it is also an existentialist and elects to call it so. It could be that all existence is a pointless joke, but it is not in fact possible to live one’s everyday life as if this were so. Whereas if one sought to define meaninglessness and futility, the idea that a human life should be expended in the guilty, fearful, self-obsessed propitiation of supernatural nonentities… but there, there. Enough.” Christopher Hitchens

MDH Editorial on Hitchens – One morning at breakfast my family and some of my children’s friends had a wonderful time discussing this quote. The first question to be raised is who is trying “to woo and win the approval of supernatural beings?” Certainly not Christians, because the Bible teaches that God gives blessings to man, including salvation, quite independently of the man’s worth. The cornerstone of the gospel is that while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. We have God’s infinite love and unconditional approval simply because He wills to give it to us. Since it is infinite, it cannot be added to. Why the Creator of Heaven and Earth loves us so much is a great mystery, but it has nothing to do with our trying to win His approval. Believers do good works because we are Christians and our nature has changed; not because we are trying to become Christians. We try to please God because we love Him, not to make Him love us more.

The material universe is wonderful, even miraculous, and certainly worthy of a lifetime of study and awe. Materialists in no way surpass believers in their wonder at the natural world. Believers might have even more, because while an atheist forces himself to believe that the majesty of nature derives from chance and strains to find meaning in it, the Christian believes that Creation reflects the glory of the God who loves them.

Hitchens made a good point when he said that those who think they have divine permission are truly capable of any atrocity, but judging from men like Joseph Stalin and Mao Tse Tung, those who do not think so are equally capable. That is why it is not enough to believe in something; people must believe in the Truth. He is also right in saying “It could be that all existence is a pointless joke, but it is not in fact possible to live one’s everyday life as if this were so.” This fact itself suggests that existence has profound meaning nearly beyond our powers to comprehend

Finally, Hitchens seemed to imply that believers in deities expended their lives in the “guilty, fearful, self-obsessed propitiation of supernatural nonentities”. Whether or not God is a “supernatural nonentity”, the truth of life is that everyone on earth, regardless of belief, expends their lives in quite a bit of guilt, fear, and self-obsession. The real question is whether people who believe in God have greater guilt, fear and self-obsession than those who do not. Christians should have no guilt because Jesus Christ has borne our sin, no fear because He has risen from the dead and so shall we, and no self-obsession because God is the center of our universe. Our incomplete success in these matters is not because of the weakness of the Gospel but because of the weakness of man. MDH

“But if God and immortality be repudiated, what is left? That is the question usually thrown at the atheist’s head. The orthodox believer likes to think that nothing is left. That, however, is because he has only been accustomed to think in terms of his orthodoxy. In point of fact, a great deal is left.

That is immediately obvious from the fact that many men and women have led active, or self-sacrificing, or noble, or devoted lives without any belief in God or immortality. Buddhism in its uncorrupted form has no such belief; nor did the great nineteenth-century agnostics; nor do the orthodox Russian Communists; nor did the Stoics. Of course, the unbelievers have often been guilty of selfish or wicked actions; but so have the believers. And in any case that is not the fundamental point. The point: is that without these beliefs men and women may yet possess the mainspring of full and purposive living, and just as strong a sense that existence can be worthwhile as is possible to the most devout believers.” Julian Huxley, Man in the Modern World

MDH Editorial on Huxley – It is absolutely true that many who rejected God have sensed that their existence was worthwhile, but man’s capacity for self-delusion is nearly infinite, and Adolph Hitler surely believed in the virtue of his cause; the worth of his life. Those who reject God are left to assume that man is the arbiter of worth and therefore if a man believes his existence worthwhile, it is. They may perhaps argue that mankind, not man, is the real arbiter, but then they are forced to define who “mankind” is and how “he” can judge worth. Those who accept God must assume that He is the arbiter of worth and that a man’s life is only worthwhile if He says it is. This is a fundamental difference.

If a man’s worth is only in his own opinion, then the value of his existence perishes with him. If it is in the eyes of others, it passes away with them. Only if the eternal God deems a man’s existence worthwhile does that value last forever. MDH

As far as we can discern, the sole purpose of human existence is to kindle a light in the darkness of mere being. Carl Gustav Jung

“Philosophers can debate the meaning of life, but you need a Lord who can declare the meaning of life.” Max Lucado

The philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways. The point, however, is to change it. Karl Marx

“Life has to be given a meaning because of the obvious fact that it has no meaning.” Henry Miller

The mind is its own place, and in itself, can make a heaven of hell, a hell of heaven. Milton

“Doubt as sin. — Christianity has done its utmost to close the circle and declared even doubt to be sin. One is supposed to be cast into belief without reason, by a miracle, and from then on to swim in it as in the brightest and least ambiguous of elements: even a glance towards land, even the thought that one perhaps exists for something else as well as swimming, even the slightest impulse of our amphibious nature — is sin! And notice that all this means that the foundation of belief and all reflection on its origin is likewise excluded as sinful. What is wanted are blindness and intoxication and an eternal song over the waves in which reason has drowned.” Friedrich Nietzsche

“True glory consists in doing what deserves to be written, in writing what deserves to be read, and in so living as to make the world happier and better for our living in it.” Pliny the Elder

“Without a purpose, schools are houses of detention, not attention” Neil Postman

“I don’t know the meaning of life. I don’t know why we are here. I think life is full of anxieties and fears and tears. It has a lot of grief in it, and it can be very grim. And I do not want to be the one who tries to tell somebody else what life is all about. To me it’s a complete mystery.” Charles M. Schulz

“To be what we are, and to become what we are capable of becoming, is the only end of life.” Robert Louis Stevenson

“Life is meaningless, when we take a life we take nothing of value.” Brent Weeks

Life is a game at terrible odds. If it were a bet you wouldn’t take it. Tom Stoppard

“I do not live when I loose belief in the existence of God. I should long ago have killed myself had I not had a dim hope of finding Him. I live really live only when I feel him and seek Him” Leo Tolstoy, A Confession

“The chief end of man is to glorify God and enjoy Him forever” Westminster Shorter Catechism

To realize one’s nature perfectly – that is what each of us is here for. Oscar Wilde

Oh, what’s the bloody point? Kenneth Williams

Surely something resides in this heart that is not perishable – and life is more than just a dream. Mary Wollstonecraft.

A living man is blind and drinks her drop. WB Yeats

Be Thou My Vision – Fixing Our Sight on God

God is not the giver of blessings; He is the blessing. God is not the enabler of accomplishments; knowing Him is the accomplishment. God is the center of our provision and the center of our ambition. And yet why is that so easy to say and so hard to do?

One of my favorite hymns is the Irish “Be thou my vision”, its words are attributed to Dallan Forgaill in the 6th century and its tune an Irish folk song, “Slane”.   The theme is that God alone should be the vision and goal of every Christian, just as He was for Paul in Philippians 3:7-14.

What does it mean to have God for our vision in our purpose for life?

The modern mantra of finding ones’ purpose for life seems to be “follow your inner star”, “find your dream” or “do your own thing.”  The idea is that within each person is something that will guide him or her to meaning and fulfillment in life if only he or she follows it.  Books, music, and movies parrot this idea relentlessly, and many people simply accept it as truth.  Under certain assumptions this could be logical:

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When a Christian Ends His Own Life

Will a genuine believer in Jesus Christ who kills himself still go to heaven?

My wife called me at work several weeks ago; the morning was good but the news was not. Our daughter had been perusing her friends’ posts on Facebook and saw some from one family that were unclear but disturbing. We called them, close personal friends for over 15 years, and learned that their oldest son had killed himself.

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Some Differences in Life between the Ancient and Modern Worlds

Life was vastly different for people in ancient times, and we must understand our ancestors’ conditions in order to appreciate their lives, comprehend their thinking, and learn from them.

In a time without cell phones, computers, telephones, automobiles, refrigerators, and all of the beeps, buzzes and noises of modern life, silence was common.  In a time when the world’s population was less than 50 million, solitude was common. In a time when populations lived or died according to the size of their local annual harvest, austerity was the norm.  This paper will mention only a few.

Sensation

By design, man has always received information from the world outside of himself through his senses.  However, in ancient times the senses of man were limited in what they could experience by the local environment.  Today such limitations are far less.

Sight

Ancient – Without photographs and with drawings and paintings rare, man’s visual input was limited to the sights of his immediate surroundings. Few people had seen snow and jungles and mountains and forests and oceans because they rarely traveled more than a few dozen miles from home and those features are rarely co-located. Travelers could describe features to friends back home, but direct experience of varied sights was uncommon. With few written documents and little literacy, reading and analyzing documents was unusual.

People in Canaan had an advantage over many other ancient peoples in their visual experiences for two reasons. First, Canaan has snow and mountains (Mt. Hermon and vicinity), forests (Lebanon, Galilee, Jordan River basin), deserts (in the south around Beersheba, Negev), and the Mediterranean Sea. As nations go, Canaan is small (comparable in land mass to modern Slovenia or El Salvador), and residents of the land had only a few weeks travel from the deserts in the mountains in the north (Beersheba to Mount Hermon is just over 200 miles by ancient routes). The distance from the Jordan River to the east, and Mediterranean Sea to the west is only 60 miles. Second, Canaan was a crossroads of trade between Mesopotamia, Arabia, Africa, Asia, and Europe. People could see traders from India bringing peacocks and elephants, those from Yemen bringing gold and spices, and those from Europe trading furs. Assyria and Egypt were mighty empires compared to puny Israel, but while average Assyrians may never have seen an ocean and average Egyptians may never have seen snow or mountains, ordinary Israelites could easily have experienced both. Few places in the world can boast of such diversity in so small an area.

Modern – Technology allows almost anyone to have almost any type of visual input, regardless of their environment. With millions of documents on every conceivable subject available to most people in an instant, people can spend large percentages of their time on them.

Hearing

Ancient – The sounds of nature, the human voice, and the noises of a few manmade things such as the creak and groan of the oxcart and the clash of swords comprised the sounds available to be heard. The overall noise level, except near inherently noisy places such as waterfalls, was low. Conversation occurs at about 60 decibels (db) and the sound of a large waterfall such as Niagara might tip 100 decibels. A human shout, such as what people might have heard in war, tops out about 90 db. Our ancestors would rarely have heard anything louder.

Modern – The only limit of sounds to which one can be exposed is the ability of the human ear.  One can listen to sounds from the deep sea or high atmosphere, sounds never experienced in person by anyone.

The overall noise level is relatively high in the cities, with traffic hovering around 80 db and a jet takeoff hitting 140 db. Since over 50% of humanity lives in cities, most people experience more sounds than their ancestors did.

Smell

Ancient – The smells accessible to man were those of the natural world immediately around them. Abraham, for example, probably never experienced the smells of cinnamon, nutmeg or cloves. Due to an increase in trade, the apostles may have.

Modern – Smells are more limited than sights or sounds because it is more difficult to transmit chemicals over the internet than electrons.  Nonetheless, foods, flowers and other fragrant items can be transported across the globe in a matter of hours.

Taste

Ancient – As with smells, food could not travel far, so people experienced only what was local. Because Canaan was a land bridge for trade between the continents, Israelites would have had the chance to experience much more.

Modern – As with smells, the only limit to tastes one can experience today is the limitations of the human body.

Touch

Ancient – Tactile stimuli are the same throughout the world.

Modern – Ancient man was far less protected from hot, cold, rough, smooth, and other such stimuli than we are today. Many of us spend our days in climate-controlled houses, buildings and vehicles.

It is important to note that while the ancients had a smaller variety of stimuli to observe, they may have observed more deeply than we do today.

Schedule

In antiquity, man was governed by the realities of nature in a way that few people living today can even imagine.  Sundials, water clocks and other devices were used to tell time in the ancient world, but mechanical clocks were not invented until the early Renaissance.  The rhythms of the seasons dictated schedules.

Day

Ancient – Artificial light, usually candles or lamps lit with olive oil, was expensive. Most people had little.  When the sun went down, they went to bed. Combat larger than small unit actions could not occur at night because commanders could not control bodies of troops. Land navigation depended upon the stars and landmarks because roads, until the famous Assyrian roads, with their regular waypoints, were generally narrow and could be easily missed.

Commoners and slaves usually did hard physical labor; farming, hunting, gathering, or construction, and were exhausted when evening came. David spent hours alone in the countryside with his sheep and Lincoln spent hours alone in the forest splitting wood.

Modern – Today artificial light is cheap and work is less often hard physical labor.  Instead of being awake 12-14 hours per day like the ancients were, we are awake 16-18 hours per day, most of it filled with activity and sensation.

Fortnight

Ancient – The phases of the moon and the movement of the stars were important for religious observances and for long distance navigation, especially nautical.

Modern – Navigation is done with timepieces, maps, charts, and radio and satellite navigation aids.  Celestial navigation is a vanishing art.

Year

Ancient – As largely agricultural people, the seasons dictated man’s activities.  Wars could not occur during the harvest until there were enough people to do both at the same time.

Modern – Few in developed countries are one poor harvest away from starvation, so the seasons have far less impact on the lives of people.

The greatest force available to man in the ancient world was the pulling force of an ox or horse and the pushing force of the wind or water.   Thus, man’s ability to lift and move was limited (although as the builders of the pyramids demonstrated, impressive).

Transportation

Man can walk about three to four miles per hour over moderate terrain, and camel and donkey caravans averaged about the same speed.  The typical day’s journey was 25 to 30 miles although it was possible to go faster if the roads were good.  Roads were made of dirt until the Roman era and trouble from highwaymen was common.  Camels needed to spend up to two months in between long journeys to recuperate. Caravan routes followed established trails or roads between water points.  Fodder had to be brought along, with roughly 30 loads of fodder for every 100 loads of merchandise.  Each camel would carry loads of up to 300 lbs. Typical cargos were wool, cotton, tea, spices, precious stones, and manufactured goods.  A caravan might include 150 camels, roughly eight files of 18 camels per file, for a total of 22.5 tons (45,000 lbs).

Water transportation was by rowing or sailing ships.  Depending upon the winds and the current, triremes (ancient Greek ships with rows and sails) typically traveled six to seven miles per hour and travel up to 60 miles per day.  Most ships would stay close to the shore and anchor at night to avoid running aground unless they were in very familiar seas.   By 240 BC, the Greeks were using cargo ships which were each capable of carrying 500 tons (1,000,000 lbs).  It is little wonder that sea trade was far cheaper than land trade.

By contrast, modern trucks can travel 400 miles in one day while carrying 24 tons (48,000 lbs).  Modern ultra large container vessels (ULCV) can carry up to 15,000 twenty foot equivalent units (TEU).  Each TEU represents approximately 24 tons (48,000 lbs).  Thus one modern ULCV can carry roughly 360,000 lbs of load.

Health

Health was one of the greatest differences between ancient and modern times.  As late as England in the 18th century, 25 women died for every 1000 babies born.  According to estimates using data from the Roman Empire, about 300 of every 1000 newborns died before completing their first year. Abortion and infanticide, common practices, artificially elevate that number, but modern non-industrial societies sometimes have infant mortality rates of up to 200/1000.  Average life expectancy was 25 years, but people who lived into adulthood probably made it to their 60s or 70s.

By contrast, modern life expectancy at birth is 75 to 80 years in the Western world and infant mortality is roughly three to five deaths per 1,000 births.  Maternal mortality is roughly 10 deaths per 100,000 live births.

Social Organization

Societies in the ancient near east, and really in the entire ancient world, were based on families and lineage. The most basic level was the nuclear and extended family, with the oldest male (who was still capable) being the paterfamilias. He was the leader of the family, including sons, unmarried daughters, wives, children, and daughters-in-law. The paterfamilias was responsible for the protection and well-being of the family, and they in turn owed loyalty and obedience to him.

The second level was the level of the king, often known as the tribal chieftain. He was the leader of the entire ethnic group, which included those who, by birth (Israel, 12 tribes), marriage (Ruth) and allegiance (the proselytes of the New Testament), considered themselves to be a part of it. Similar to the father in the household group, the king owed his position to his family connections. Wise kings took pains to cultivate such connections, as they conferred loyalty. One reason that Solomon married so many women is that he wished to establish family links to the surrounding nations to enhance and trade and security in Israel. In exchange for allegiance to the king, members of society expected him to protect them.

The third level was that of the deity. In Israel, YHWH was the ultimate patriarchal figure. In Assyria, Babylon, and Canaan, Asher, Marduk, and Baal took on that role. Ancient religions were affiliated with ancient people, and proselytizing would have been seen as pointless, if not disloyal to one’s kin group. God intended the ancient Hebrew faith to be missionary, but the Israelites themselves largely rejected it. The experiences of the Prophet Jonah are a good example. People performed religious duties to honor their god, and in return expected fertility, protection, and an overall good life.

In the modern day, the State has taken over many of the functions of the family in society. To some extent, this is inevitable, as no family has the range of resources necessary to cope with modern complexities. Also to an extent, it has always been that way, as even in the Bronze Age only governments had the resources to build cities and fortresses. Today, however, the State has assumed power hitherto reserved almost exclusively to the family. Care for elders was once a family affair, as was the training of children. Individual economic prosperity was achieved by hard work, and often with the help of kinsmen, rather than being a government duty.

Conclusion

Libraries have been written on this topic, but students of history and historical documents such as the Bible should be aware of these important facts.  A clearer understanding of the lives of our ancestors will help us better understand their thoughts, actions, and lives.  It will also help us better identify the lessons of history and apply them to our world today.

Paul’s Life – Background and Chronology

The Pharisee Saul, better known as Paul, laid the foundation for the Church. What can we learn from him?

Paul, possibly the most famous of the apostles of Jesus Christ, was a scion of Jews of the Diaspora.  Until the Babylonian exile beginning in 605-586 BC, Israelites of the tribe of Judah were concentrated in Southern Palestine.  Afterwards, they were scattered all over the ancient Near East, with large communities thriving in Alexandria and Rome.  A sizeable community arose in Tarsus of Cilicia, a province in what is now southeastern Turkey close to the border of Syria.  Tarsus was a major Roman city of trade and learning, and Cilicia was famous for its cloth products.  Both influences can be clearly seen in Paul’s later life as an educated traveler and scholar who made tents to support himself.

Jews of the Diaspora formed communities wherever they lived and so were able to maintain much of their religion and culture, including attending synagogues and observing dietary laws.  Paul, the son of observant Jewish parents, was raised as a “Hebrews of Hebrews” in this environment.  Paul’s parents were also Roman citizens, a rare honor, and so Paul inherited citizenship, which greatly helped his ministry.   At some point in his childhood he traveled to Jerusalem and learned Judaism at the feet of Gamaliel, the famous 1st century Jewish teacher.  Passionate for his Hebrew faith, Paul became a Pharisee, and excelled among his peers in every way.

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Daily Life in First Century Israel and the Roman Empire

One of the difficulties in understanding the Bible as a 21st century American Christian is the vast chasm of language, culture, and geography that separates us from people of the Bible times.  Even considering only first century Palestine, the differences are enormous.  Nonetheless, the better we understand them, the better we will understand Him, and so studying daily life in that era is vital.

New Testament Israel was first and foremost an agricultural society.  Lacking good ports, it could not be a maritime power and benefit from high levels of seaborne trade, but being on the Europe-Asia-Africa land bridge, Israel did benefit from overland trade.   Lacking natural resources such as iron, gold and precious stones, it could not make large amounts in exports.  So the average Jew was a farmer, holding a small plot of land and obeying the timeless rhythms of the seasons and the weather for his daily life.  The early Jew rose before the sun, dressed in a simple woolen or linen tunic and leather sandals, and tilled the fields for several hours before returning home for his morning meal of vegetables and bread.   His home was no more than a few rooms, with walls of stone and mud and a roof of beams/branches and mud.  After eating he returned to the fields, using hand tools and perhaps an ox.  Occasionally he went to market to buy the items needed for his farm and family.  After his toil, the New Testament Jew would return home to his wife and children for an evening meal, a little teaching of the Scriptures and perhaps singing and dancing, and an early bedtime.  The man’s neighbors in the same village, or perhaps even sharing the same courtyard, had similar schedules.  Taxes were exorbitant, up to 50% of a farmer’s salary, and the cause of financial destitution in many and brigandry in some.

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