The last king of Judah, Zedekiah, was discontent and disobedient to his God. It destroyed him and his whole nation with him. How does his tragic experience inform and challenge us today?
By Mark D. Harris
Few Christians look at Jeremiah or the Old Testament prophets for guidance in modern life. Fewer still look at the wicked kings of Israel and Judah. But their folly and failure contain powerful lessons for followers of Christ today. Zedekiah is a good place to start.
Continue reading “Zedekiah – Discontent, Disobedient, and Destroyed”
Every society includes the good, the bad, and the complacent. Isaiah shows us what to be, and how.
By Mark D. Harris
A small, fractious, religiously dominated country was paying tribute to a rich empire with an advanced military. In a fit of hubris, the oppressed people stopped sending their wagonloads of gold, hoping that a neighboring nation would come to their aid. The empire mobilized its forces and defeated the weak intervening armies of the neighboring nation. It then turned its greedy eyes and vengeful hands on the rebels.
Continue reading “The Good, the Bad, and the Complacent”
What are the major periods in ancient history? What happened in the Bronze Age? The Iron Age? Which empires rose and fell? How do these events interact with Bible events? Look at this timeline in antiquity for answers.
3200-2200 BC – Early Bronze Age
- 2920-2575 – Egyptian Early Dynastic period
- 2700-2400 – Mesopotamian Early Dynastic period
- 2575-2134 – Egyptian Old Kingdom
- 2400-2000 – Akkad, Ur III
2200-1550 BC – Middle Bronze Age
- 2134-2040 – Egyptian First Intermediate Period
- 2040-1640 – Egyptian Middle Kingdom
- 2000-1600 – Old Babylonian/Old Assyrian Kingdoms
- Around 2000 – Life of Abraham and life of Job
- Around 1800 – Jacob’s family migrates to Egypt to survive the famine (Genesis 46-50)
- Around 1650 – Semitic Hyksos conquer Nile delta
1550-1200 BC – Late Bronze Age
- 1640-1550 – Egyptian Second Intermediate Period
- 1550-1070 – Egyptian New Kingdom
- 1600-1000 – Middle Babylonian/Middle Assyrian Kingdoms
- Around 1400 – The Exodus of the Hebrews from Egypt (Exodus 1-14)
- Around 1400 to 1100 – Conquest of the Promised Land and Period of the Israelite Judges
1200-586 BC – Iron Age
- 1070-712 – Egyptian Third Intermediate Period
- 1155-539 – New Babylonian/New Assyrian Kingdoms
- 712-343 – Egyptian Late Period
Timeline in Antiquity
- 1375 BC – Solar Eclipse (total) – Early Mesopotamian records (3 May)
- 1312 BC – Solar Eclipse (total) – Mursili’s eclipse, Anatolia, (24 June)
- 1179 BC – Catastrophic end to many civilians in the Western Mediterranean, including Crete and Mycenae
- 1178 BC – Solar Eclipse (total) – Odyssey Eclipse (16 April)
- 1046-256 BC – Zhou Dynasty in China
- 1050-1010 BC – Reign of Saul
- 1010-1008 BC – Reign of Ishbosheth (north only, son of Saul)
- 1010-1002 BC – Reign of David (south only)
- 1002-970 BC – Reign of David (all Israel and Judah)
- Around 990 BC – Ministry of the Prophet Nathan (2 Samuel 12)
- 970-930 BC – Reign of Solomon (son of David)
- 930-910 BC – Reign of Jeroboam I (Israel)
- 930-913 BC – Reign of Rehoboam (Judah)
- 913-910 BC – Reign of Abijam (Judah)
- 910-909 BC – Reign of Nadab (Israel)
- 910-870 BC – Reign of Asa (Judah)
- 909-886 BC – Reign of Baasha (Israel)
- 899 BC – Solar Eclipse (annular) – China’s Double Dawn (21 April)
- 886-885 BC – Reign of Elah (Israel)
- 885 BC – Reign of Zimri (Israel)
- 885-884 BC – Reign of Tibni (Israel)
- 884-874 BC – Reign of Omri (Israel
- 874-853 BC – Reign of Ahab (Israel) – Ahab constructed important water works at the northern fortress city of Hazor.
- 870-848 BC – Reign of Jehoshaphat (Judah).
- 854 BC – King Ahab of Israel, allied with Hadadezer of Syria and ten other kings, held off at attack by Shalmaneser III, King of Assyria (858-824 BC), at the Battle of Qarqar.
- 853-852 BC – Reign of Ahaziah (Israel)
- 852-841 BC – Reign of Jehoram/Joram (Israel)
- 848-841 BC – Reign of Jehoram/Joram (Judah)
- 841 BC – Reign of Ahaziah (Judah)
- 841-835 BC – Reign of Queen Athaliah (Judah). This woman usurped the throne on the death of her son, Ahaziah. She killed all his heirs except the infant Jehoash, who was secretly kept by the priest Jehoiada. (2 Kings 11:1-16)
- 841-814 BC – Reign of Jehu (Israel)
- 841 BC – The Assyrians campaigned against Israel, forcing King Jehu (841-815 BC) to pay tribute.
- 835-796 BC – Reign of Joash/Jehoash (Judah)
- 814-798 BC – Reign of Jehoahaz (Israel)
- 810-782 BC – King Adad-Nirari III of Assyria claimed tribute from Israel.
- 798-782 BC – Reign of Jehoash/Joash (Israel)
- 796-767 BC – Reign of Amaziah (Judah)
- 793-753 BC – Reign of Jeroboam II (Israel) – coregent from 793. He was one of the most effective monarchs and led
- 790-739 BC – Uzziah (Azariah) reigned in Judah (coregency with his father at first)
- 782-746 BC – Shalmaneser IV reigned in Assyria
- Around 782-745 BC – Ministry of the prophet Jonah. Assyria was at war with the powerful kingdom of Urartu (Van), allied with Mannai and Madai. 760 BC is a likely time.
- Around 767-752 BC – Ministry of the prophet Amos
- 763 BC – Solar Eclipse (total) of Assyria (15 June)
- 753 BC – Rome founded by Remus and Romulus, legendary descendants from Troy
- 753-752 BC – Zechariah and Shallum ruled in Israel
- 752-732 BC – Pekah reigned in Israel
- 752-742 BC – Reign of Menaham (Israel)
- 782-746 BC – Shalmaneser IV reigned in Assyria
- 753 BC – Rome founded by Remus and Romulus, legendary descendants from Troy
- 753-752 BC – Reign of Zechariah and Shallum (Israel)
- 750 BC – Legendary rape (abduction) of the Sabine women
- 750-731 BC – Jotham reigned in Judah
- Around 750-715 BC – Ministry of the prophet Hosea.
- Around 750-722 BC – Ministry of the prophet Micah.
- 742-740 BC – Reign of Pekahiah (Israel)
- 740-732 BC – Reign of Pekah (Israel)
- 740-732 BC – Reign of Jotham (Judah)
- Around 740 BC – Tiglath-Pileser III (745-727 BC) was king of Assyria and invaded Israel, requiring tribute from Menahem (752-732 BC). He later invaded Judah and received tribute from King Ahaz (735-715 BC).
- 732 BC – Assyria conquers Aram (Syria).
- 732-716 BC – Reign of Ahaz (Judah)
- 732-722 BC – Reign of Hoshea (Israel)
- 732 BC – Fall of Damascus
- 716-687 BC – Reign of Hezekiah (Judah)
- 728 BC – 25th Dynasty in Egypt founded under Piye
- 722 BC – Assyria under Shalmaneser V (727-722 BC) besieged the Northern Kingdom of Israel. Ahaz of Judah paid tribute to Assyria.
- 721 BC – King Sargon II of Assyria (721-705 BC) conquered Samaria, the capital of the northern kingdom of Israel, and carried the people into exile.
- 718 BC – King Canduales of Lydia was murdered by Gyges, a courtier and probably a freed slave. Gyges then became King of Lydia.
- 717 BC – Assyria attacked Phoenicia and besieged Tyre but failed to conquer it.
- 703 BC – Hezekiah King of Judah (728-687 BC) stopped paying tribute to Assyria, thus launching a rebellion against Sennacherib (705-681 BC).
- 701 BC – Assyrian army under Sennacherib conquered Lachish and besieged Jerusalem.
- 701 BC – King Hezekiah of Judah humbled himself and God delivered Jerusalem, wiping out the Assyrians.
- 687-643 BC – Reign of Manasseh (Judah)
- 684-320 BC – Maghada Dynasty in India
- 681-669 BC – Esarhaddon reigned in Assyria
- 669-633 BC – Ashurbanipal reigned in Assyria.
- 661 BC – Fall of Thebes to the Assyrians
- 660 BC – Zoroaster (c 660- c 583 BC), founder of the Persian religion Zoroastrianism, was born.
- 652-626 BC – Ministry of the prophet Nahum.
- Around 650 BC – Manasseh, the wicked king of Judah and son of Hezekiah, was captured by the Assyrians and carried away. While there he repented and sought God.
- 648 BC – Solar Eclipse (total) – Archilochus’ Eclipse. (6 April)
- 643 BC – Manasseh died and was succeeded by his son Amon.
- 643-640 BC – Reign of Amon (Judah)
- 640 BC – Amon was assassinated and succeeded by his son, the good king Josiah (640-609 BC).
- 640-609 BC – Reign of Josiah (Judah)
- 627-621 BC – Ministry of the prophet Zephaniah.
- 627-580 BC – Ministry of the prophet Jeremiah.
- 626-616 BC – Babylonian army under Nabopolassar (626-605 BC) and his son Nebuchadnezzar (605-562) achieved Babylonian independence from Assyria.
- 626-590 BC – Ministry of the prophet Habakkuk.
- 612 BC – Nineveh, the capital of the Assyrian Empire, fell to Nabopolassar and the Babylonians.
- 609 BC – King Josiah died fighting against the Egyptians under Pharaoh Neco in the Battle of Megiddo.
- 609 BC – Pharaoh Neco installed Jehoahaz, then Jehoiakim as King of Judah.
- 609-597 BC – Reign of Jehoiakim (Judah)
- 605 BC – Nabopolassar died. At the Battle of Carchemish, Babylon defeated Assyria and Egypt (Pharaoh Neco). Assyria ceased to exist as a political entity.
- 605 BC – First exile of the Jews, including Daniel and his three friends Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, to Babylon.
- 605-535 BC – Ministry of the prophet Daniel.
- 6th century BC – The life of Mahavira, the 24th Tirthankara and founder of Jainism.
- Around 600 BC – Ministry of the prophet Hosea.
- 597 BC – Nebuchadnezzar installed Jehoiachin as King of Judah.
- 597 BC – Jehoiachin reigned in Judah.
- 597 BC – Revolt of Judah under Jehoiachin. Babylonians defeated the Jews and installed Zedekiah as king.
- 597-586 BC – Reign of Zedekiah (Judah)
- 593-570 BC – Ministry of the prophet Ezekiel.
- 587 BC – Revolt of Zedekiah, Jerusalem and temple destroyed. Most of the inhabitants of the land were taken away
- 586 BC – Remnants of the people in Judah killed the Babylonian governor Gedeliah, kidnapped Jeremiah, and fled to Egypt.
- Around 586? – Early exilic period – Obadiah ministered and wrote his book.
- 585 BC – Solar eclipse (total) – Thales, Battle of the Eclipse in Asia Minor, (28 May)
- 584-564 BC – Moab, which had attacked Judah during Nebuchadnezzar’s invasion (2 Kings 24:2), resisted Babylon and was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar.
- 563 BC – Nebuchadnezzar died
- 560 BC – Evil-Merodach, son of Nebuchanezzar, assassinated in a conspiracy led by Neriglissar
- 560 BC – Croesus became king of Lydia, a large kingdom in present day western Turkey.
- 557 BC – Solar Eclipse (total) – The Siege of Larisa, firstly recorded by Xenophon, (19 May)
- 556 BC – Neriglissar died
- 556 BC – Labashi-Marduk, son of Neriglissar, ascended to the throne of Babylon.
- 556 BC – Nabonidus, a wealthy merchant in Babylon, led a rebellion against Labashi-Marduk, seized power and assassinated the king.
- 551 BC – Confucius (551-479 BC) was born
- 546 BC – Croesus King of Lydia was defeated by Cyrus the Persian and his empire was destroyed. Nabonidus had allied with Croesus, and so Cyrus attacked him
- 540-539 BC – Cyrus (539-530) defeated the Babylonians at the Battle of Osis and Nabonidus fled south.
- 539 BC – Cyrus conquered Babylon and killed the king, Belshazzar (29 October).
- 538 BC – Cyrus issued his proclamation for Jews to return home (Ezra 1:1).
- 538-537 BC – Many of the Jewish exiles returned to Palestine. Temple rebuilding began.
- 538-518 BC – Assuming that Daniel wrote the Book of Daniel and that he finished it shortly before his death in the early part of Cyrus I’s reign, it must have been written in this period.
- Around 530 BC – Many factors including resistance from neighbors caused the rebuilding of the Temple to stop.
- 530 BC – Cyrus the Great was killed while fighting against the Massagetae, a nomadic tribe in Central Asia related to the Scythians, along the Jaxartes River (modern Syr Darya).
- Late sixth century to early fifth century BC – Probable writing of the Book of Joel.
- 529 BC – Cambyses (530-522 BC) ruled Persia.
- 528 BC – Siddhartha Gautama (563-483 BC) founded Buddhism.
- 525 BC – Persian forces under Cambyses conquered Egypt.
- 522 BC – After some political intrigue, Darius I (522-486) ascended to the throne of Persia.
- 520 BC – Haggai’s first message (August), second message (October), third and fourth messages (December)
- 520 BC – Zechariah’s ministry began (November)
- 520 BC – Temple construction resumed.
- 519 BC – Zechariah’s eight-night visions (February)
- 516/15 BC – Temple in Jerusalem rebuilt under Zerubbabel (Ezra 6:15).
- 512 BC – Sun Tzu (544-496 BC) wrote the Art of War.
- 510 BC – Establishment of the Roman Republic
- 495-429 BC – Life of Pericles (Greek Ruler)
- 490 BC – In the Battle of Marathon, Darius 1 (the Great, 550-486 BC) of Persia was defeated by the Athenians and Plateans.
- 485 BC – Xerxes 1 (The Great, 485-465 BC) became king over Persia. He is known as Ahasuerus in the book of Esther.
- 484-325 BC – Life of Herodotus (Greek historian)
- 480 BC – Xerxes 1 invaded Greece with a large army, winning at the Battle of Thermopylae and losing decisively at the Battle of Salamis. Xerxes returned to Susa and left his general Mardonius in command of the Persian army in Greece.
- After 480 BC – Zechariah’s final prophecy
- 478 or 480 BC – Solar Eclipse (annular). 17 Feb or 2 Oct, Eclipse occurring prior to Xerxes’ first march against Greece. Herodotus (who chronicled the eclipse) gives a date for which there was no eclipse visible in that area of the world, so the date is debated.
- 479 BC – Mardonius was crushed by the Greeks in the Battle of Platea and the Battle of Mycale. The Persian Army limped home, a shadow of its former self.
- 479-465 BC – Likely period during which the events in the Book of Esther occurred.
- 475-450 BC – Ministry of the prophet Malachi.
- 470-399 BC – Life of Socrates (philosopher)
- 465 BC – Xerxes (As mentioned in the Book of Esther was assassinated, and after some intrigue, his son Artaxerxes succeeded him.
- 464 BC – Artaxerxes I (464-424 BC) became ruler over Persia.
- 460-395 BC – Life of Thucydides (historian and general)
- 458 BC – Ezra led a group of Jewish exiles back to Judah and wrote the Book of Ezra, recounting the rebuilding of the Temple under Zerubbabel.
- 450-300 BC – Most likely date range for the writing of the Book of Esther.
- 449 BC – Herodotus completed his History, covering the Persian wars.
- 445 BC – Nehemiah led a group of exiled Jews back to Jerusalem to rebuild the walls.
- 431-404 BC – The Peloponnesian War between the Athenian empire and the Peloponnesian League (including Sparta).
- 431 BC – Solar Eclipse (total) – Pericles reassured Athens, recorded by Thucydides. (3 August)
- 430 BC – Plague of Athens (recurred 429, 427, 426), a devastating epidemic that killed 1/3 to 2/3 of the population. Typhus, typhoid, and viral hemorrhagic fevers are possible pathogens.
- 427-347 BC – Life of Plato (philosopher)
- Around 425 BC – Ministry of Malachi.
- 424 BC – Solar Eclipse (annular). (21 March)
- Early fourth century BC – Edom destroyed by the Nabateans, a people from northern Arabia and the southern Levant.
- 415-413 BC – Disastrous Athenian invasion of Sicily in the Peloponnesian War.
- 403 BC – Artaxerxes II (403-359 BC) ascended to the Persian throne.
- 384-322 BC – Life of Aristotle (philosopher)
- 384-322 BC – Life of Demosthenes (statesman)
- 358 BC – Artaxerxes III (358-337 BC) became ruler of Persia.
- 331 BC – Alexander the Great (356-323 BC) crushed Darius the Persian for the final time at the Battle of Gaugamela, destroying the Achaemenid Empire and extending his borders from Macedonia to India.
- 323 BC – Alexander died in Babylon, his four generals dividing up his empire. This resulted in the Ptolemic Kingdom (Egypt and Palestine), Seleucid Kingdom (Persia, Mesopotamia and Eastern Anatolia), Lysimachid Kingdom (Western Anatolia and Trace) and Antigonid Kingdom (Macedonia).
- 322-184 BC – Mauryan Empire in India. Founded by Chandragupta Maurya (Reigned 324-297 BC).
- 319 BC – Solar Eclipse (total). (6 May)
- 268-232 BC – Reign of Ashoka, the greatest king of the Mauryan Empire
- 221-206 BC – Qin Dynasty in China
- 206 BC – 220 AD – Han Dynasty in China
- 198 BC – Antiochus III (The Great) of the Seleucid Kingdom defeated the Ptolemiac forces at the Battle of Panium, wresting Palestine from Egyptian control.
- 168 BC – Antiochus IV (Epiphanes) desecrated the Temple in Jerusalem, prompting a revolt. Later he massacred Jews in Judah.
- 164 BC – The Maccabees rebelled against the Seleucids, throwing off their rule and founding the Hasmonean Dynasty which reigned in Palestine until the Roman conquest.
- 63 BC – Roman forces intervened in a Hasmonean Civil War and captured Jerusalem, making Judah a client state.
- 37 BC – After Jerusalem passed back and forth between Parthian and Roman rulers, Rome finally secured it and the Idumean Herod the Great became “King of the Jews”.
- 4-6 BC – Jesus was born.
Learn more about Hezekiah and the Assyrian War with historical fiction in Head of the Lion. Please use this timeline in antiquity as a reference when trying to understand the history of the Ancient Near East and Asia before Christ. This information came from several references, including The Expositor’s Bible Commentary (edited by Frank E. Gaebelein, 1899-1983), Annals of the World by Irish Archbishop Bishop James Ussher (1581-1656), and The Case of Biblical Archeology by John D. Currid.
Ancient Israel, like all other nations in antiquity, was agricultural. Understanding the agriculture is fundamental to understanding the Bible
By Mark D. Harris
In Exodus 33:3 God promised to take the Hebrews, recently freed from slavery in Egypt, to a “land flowing with milk and honey.” During my trip to Israel in March of 1995 when I approached Jerusalem, I was a little skeptical of the “milk and honey” description. Much of the land is dry and hilly, and it was warm even that early in the year. Israel more resembled where I grew up, arid Southern Calfornia, than the watered paradise I had envisaged. After many years and much study, I have come to realize that Israel truly was “a land flowing with milk and honey”, especially compared to the Arabian Desert and Egypt (beyond the Nile).
Even more important, it is impossible to understand much of the Bible without understanding the agriculture that it describes. Unlike modern industrial and information societies, in which food is so plentiful that only a small minority are involved in its production, Ancient Israel was agricultural. So was every nation around them. Every aspect of their lives, economies, religion, pleasure, and even war revolved around the cycles of nature in a way that few of us can understand.
Continue reading “The Land of Milk and Honey – Agriculture in Ancient Israel”