Relations between Jews and Gentiles have been problematic for most of the history of the Jewish people. Abraham seems to have been humble about his special relationship with God, and Isaac and Jacob as well. They all seem to have integrated well into the world around them, while staying faithful to YHWH. The Patriarchs, while flawed, knew the Lord, and were honored for it.
Slavery in Egypt was a defining period in the Jewish nation, and they understandably hated the Gentile Egyptians. The Passover highlighted the distinctiveness of the Hebrews as God’s people, and on Mt. Sinai the tribes received the Law which separated them in many ways from those around. Psychologically, such distinctiveness sometimes leads to short term feelings of inferiority and long term feelings of superiority.
Continue reading “Proselytes, God-fearers, and Relations between Jews and Gentiles in the Bible”
The Messiah was supposed to deliver Israel from all oppressors and lead them into a new golden age. A rabbi from Galilee was not what they had in mind.
“Messiah”, “Anointed One” and “Christ” are some of the most common names used by Christians (“Christ followers”). We understand that Jesus (the) Christ is the anointed Son of God, Creator, and Lord of the Universe who came to earth once to suffer, die and be raised again to save us from our sins. One day He will come again to establish His perfect kingdom in the Universe. We see Him as a suffering servant, and a conquering hero. Given the full text of the Bible and our knowledge of what Jesus actually did, this is entirely reasonable. But the picture of the Messiah was far different to Jews in the first century.
Like America in 2011, Palestine in the first century AD was a diverse place, with Jews, Romans, Greeks, Persians, Arabs, Egyptians, Africans, and a host of others. Religions were aplenty, especially in Galilee, Samaria and Perea, and political intrigue and violence was the norm. Many Jews longed for a return to the glorious days of King David, when Israel was the greatest power in the Near East. They also chafed under Roman domination, oppressive taxes, and the rule of an outsider, Herod. Spiritually, the Jews had been bereft of the prophetic voice of God for 400 years, and they hoped for another prophet to show the way.
Continue reading “The Messiah, Who Did the Jews Expect Him to Be?”
The Pharisees, whose origin is probably in the “pious ones” or Hasidim, were a prominent religious group of at least 6,000 members in first century Palestine. After the catastrophe of the Babylonian exile and the growing threat of Hellenism during and after Alexander the Great, the Jews tried to recover what was right about their religion and culture and prevent anything similar from ever happening again. They were dedicated to the Law, including the Torah, the Writings and the Prophets, and they believed that they should focus on three things.
- To know the Law expertly and judge wisely from it
- To make disciples
- To build a fence around the Law.
Continue reading “The Pharisees, the Sadducees, and the Essenes”
One of the difficulties in understanding the Bible as a 21st century American Christian is the vast chasm of language, culture, and geography that separates us from people of the Bible times. Even considering only first century Palestine, the differences are enormous. Nonetheless, the better we understand them, the better we will understand Him, and so studying daily life in that era is vital.
New Testament Israel was first and foremost an agricultural society. Lacking good ports, it could not be a maritime power and benefit from high levels of seaborne trade, but being on the Europe-Asia-Africa land bridge, Israel did benefit from overland trade. Lacking natural resources such as iron, gold and precious stones, it could not make large amounts in exports. So the average Jew was a farmer, holding a small plot of land and obeying the timeless rhythms of the seasons and the weather for his daily life. The early Jew rose before the sun, dressed in a simple woolen or linen tunic and leather sandals, and tilled the fields for several hours before returning home for his morning meal of vegetables and bread. His home was no more than a few rooms, with walls of stone and mud and a roof of beams/branches and mud. After eating he returned to the fields, using hand tools and perhaps an ox. Occasionally he went to market to buy the items needed for his farm and family. After his toil, the New Testament Jew would return home to his wife and children for an evening meal, a little teaching of the Scriptures and perhaps singing and dancing, and an early bedtime. The man’s neighbors in the same village, or perhaps even sharing the same courtyard, had similar schedules. Taxes were exorbitant, up to 50% of a farmer’s salary, and the cause of financial destitution in many and brigandry in some.
Continue reading “Daily Life in First Century Israel and the Roman Empire”